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Developmental Psychology Exam Two
Terms in this set (130)
What comprises social interaction for infants?
primary and secondary intersubjectivity
In social interaction for infants, what comprises primary intersubjectivity?
contingent responding, emotional expressiveness
In social interaction for infants, what comprises secondary intersubjectivity?
joint attention, social referencing
Contingent responding - Murray & Trevarthen (1986) Journal of Child Language, 13, 15-29. The objective was to examine the "rhythm" of early mother-child interaction. The method involved mothers and 2-month-old infants interacting via video either online or with delay. Describe the results.
infants show distress in delay condition
Contingent responding - Rochat, Striano & Blatt (2002) Infant & Child Development, 11, 289-303. The objective was how do infants react to emotional responsivity of adults? The method involved 2, 4, and 6-month-old infants interacting with adult female who periodically gives a happy, sad, or neutral still face. Describe the results.
2-month-old infants show decreased distress response in happy condition, 4 and 6-month-old infants show reaction in all still face conditions
Emotional expression - Malatesta, Culver, Shepard & Tresman (1989), Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 54, 1-104. The objective was to examine mothers and infants' emotional expressions during first year of life. The method involved mothers and infants engaging in face-to-face interaction at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 22 months. Describe the results.
mothers engage in more frequent, more varied, and more intense expressions with girls than boys, over time infants begin to show same emotional expressions as mother
Emotional expression - Montague & Walker-Andrews (2002) Child Development, 73, 1339-1352. The objective was do infants react differentially to emotional expressions of parents and unfamiliar adults? The method involved 3.5-month-old infants being exposed to happy, sad, and angry facial and vocal expressions of mother, father, and unfamiliar female and male in an intermodal preference task. Describe the results.
infants looked longer at mother's face matching vocal expression and not for father or unfamiliar adults
Joint attention - Bakeman & Adamson (1984) Child Development, 55, 1278-1289. The objective was to chart the developmental progression of joint attentional states. The method involved 6-month-old infants being followed longitudinally to 18 months in home observations. Their interactions with their mothers and peers were coded for various types of joint attention. Describe the results.
person engagement declined with age, object engagement remained stable, coordinated joint attention increased, both passive and coordinated joint attention was greater with mother than peers
Social referencing - Rosen, Adamson & Bakeman (1992) Developmental Psychology, 28, 1172-1178. The objective was to examine how infants use emotional information conveyed by their mothers in an ambiguous situation. The method involved 12-month-old infants being presented with four ambiguous toys, and mothers convey happiness or fear. Describe the results.
mothers convey happiness more clearly than fear, mothers convey fear more intensely to boys, girls modulate their distance from the toy based on maternal message more than boys
What are the three underlying components of temperament?
emotionality, attention, activity
What can also comprise temperament?
reactivity, effortful control
What should be considered about temperament?
genetic basis, stability over time
Regarding the three underlying components of temperament, what does emotionality encompass?
fearful distress, irritable distress, positive affect
Regarding the three underlying components of temperament, what does attention encompass?
Regarding the three underlying components of temperament, what does activity encompass?
Genetic basis of temperament - Goldsmith, Lemery, Buss & Campos (1999) Developmental Psychology, 35, 972-985. The objective was to determine genetic and environmental influences on temperament. The method involved 3 to 16-month-old twins and their parents. The parents filled out temperament questionnaires, and the infants were observed in a laboratory setting. Describe the results.
shared environment accounted for majority of variability in soothability, genetic influences accounted for majority of variability in distress and activity
Stability of temperament over time - Pfeifer, Goldsmith, Davidson & Rickman (2002) Child Development, 73, 1474-1485. The objective was to examine the stability of inhibited/uninhibited dimension of temperament. The method involved following up 63 toddlers who were extremely inhibited, extremely uninhibited, or intermediate at 4 and 7-years-old. Describe the results.
only a minority of children showed continuity and only at the extreme ends of the distribution
What is the older theory for attachment?
Regarding attachment, who challenged drive-reduction theory?
In Harlow's experiment, what were Rhesus monkeys raised with?
a wire "mother" with a bottle and a terry-cloth "mother" with no bottle
What did Harlow's experiment show about feeding?
not the primary basis for attachment
Who formulated attachment theory?
According to Bowlby, what is attachment?
an organized behavioral and emotional system
What are the stages of Bowlby's attachment theory?
physiological regulation (0-6 weeks), social responsiveness (6 weeks-6 months), separation anxiety (6 months-18 months), internal working model (18 months)
Regarding Bowlby's stages of attachment, what occurs in physiological regulation (0-6 weeks)?
recognition of mother's voice and smell
Regarding Bowlby's stages of attachment, what occurs in social responsiveness (6 weeks-6 months)?
smiling, differential recognition of familiar adults
Regarding Bowlby's stages of attachment, what does separation anxiety (6 months-18 months) depend on?
Regarding Bowlby's stages of attachment, what does internal working model (18 months) depend on?
long-term memory and representation
What are the attachment categories?
secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized-disoriented
What percentage of infants show secure attachment?
What percentage of infants show avoidant attachment?
What percentage of infants show resistant attachment?
What percentage of infants show disorganized-disoriented attachment?
Attachment and parenting - Blehar, Lieberman & Ainsworth (1977) Child Development, 48, 182-194. The objective was to assess relations between maternal responsiveness and attachment behavior. The method involved examining 26 mother-infant dyads in the home longitudinally from 6-15 weeks of age, and the strange situation was assessed at 51 weeks. Describe the results.
mothers were stable over the period of observation, mothers who showed more sensitive and responsive caregiving had infants who were later securely attached
In Groh's (2018) experiment, 4, 8, and 12-month-old infants were shown videos where half the time the mothers help the children and half the time mothers do not help. Infants looked longer at mothers who ignored their crying baby showing that infants realized _____. This is important because it has huge implications for _____.
not comforting is a violation, attachment model
What are the factors affecting parenting and attachment?
parent's attachment history, current life situation, infant's temperament, infant's gender, multiple attachments
With stability of attachment, some research finds the construct to be very stable, while other research does not come to the same conclusion. What are factors?
sample, measurement (task, categories vs. dimensions)
Significance of paternal engagement - Ranchandani et al. (2013) Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 56-64. The objective was to determine longitudinal relations between early father-infant interaction and child's later externalizing behaviors. The method involved observing fathers interacting with their infant at 3 months, and assessments of externalizing behaviors were filled out at 1 year of age. Describe the results.
more disengagement and remoteness in fathers' interactions with their infant at 3 months was associated with higher levels of externalizing behaviors at 1 year
Enduring significance of maternal sensitivity - Raby, Roisman, Fraley, & Simpson (2015) Child Development, 86, 695-708. The objective was to examine long-term relations between early maternal sensitivity and children's later social and academic competence through age 32. The method involved observations of mother-child interaction, teacher ratings of child's competence with peers, achievement tests and education level, and interviews on history of romantic relationships. Describe the results.
early maternal sensitivity in the first 3 years was related to quality of romantic relationships and educational attainment in adulthood (covariates play different roles!)
What are the types of self?
ecological, interactional, conceptual
What does ecological self encompass?
recognition of physical self
What does conceptual self encompass?
self as object of reflection, narrative self in time
What stage of cognitive growth do children in early childhood experience?
What comprises Piaget's preoperational thought?
internalization of action (mental schemes), stage theory, limitations of preoperational schemes
Regarding Piaget's preoperational thought, what comprises internalization of action (mental schemes)?
conservation, seriation and transitivity, perspective taking
Regarding Piaget's preoperational thought, what comprises stage theory?
universal, domain general
Regarding Piaget's preoperational thought, what are the limitations of preoperational schemes?
egocentric, irreversible, states vs. transformations
In early childhood, how does make-believe play develop?
more detached from real-life, less self-centered, more complex sociodramatic play
Dual representation - DeLoache: the incredible shrinking room. The objective was to assess whether 2 ¹/₂ and 3-year-old children have dual representation. The method involved asking children to find "big Snoopy" in a big room in same place that "little Snoopy" is hidden in little room. Describe the results.
2 ¹/₂-year-old children fail but 3-year-old children have no problem
What are animistic beliefs?
inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
What are magical beliefs?
explanations for events that young children cannot explain
Can conservation be taught? - Gelman (1969) Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 7, 167-187. The objective was to teach conservation to preoperational children. The method involved discrimination learning set training on length and number tasks. Describe the results.
post-tests showed number and length conservation but not liquid
What is failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own?
In early childhood, what comprises categorization?
class inclusion problems, taxonomic vs. thematic categories, categorical inferences
Regarding categorization in early childhood, what does taxonomic vs. thematic categories encompass?
superordinate, basic level, subordinate
In early childhood, where does early emergence for theory of mind come from?
With theory of mind in early childhood, what are early verbal references to?
own and other's mental states
During early childhood, what is the developmental sequence for theory of mind?
1. perceptual perspective taking
2. desires and emotions
The false-belief task - Wimmer & Perner (1983) Cognition, 13, 103-128. The objective was when do children understand that others can hold false beliefs? The method involved a narrative about a child not knowing that an object has been moved to a different location. Describe the results.
children under the age of 4 assume the child will know new location
In the "smarties" task, a child is shown a candy box and is asked what is in it. The child responds candy. The child is shown crayons in a candy box and is asked about _____.
another child's knowledge and about own prior knowledge
The role of language - Astington & Jenkins (1999) Developmental Psychology, 35, 1311-1320. The objective was to examine bi-directional influences between language and theory of mind. The method involved 3-year-old children being followed longitudinally over 7 months and giving language and TOM assessments. Describe the results.
Time 1 language abilities predict Time 2 TOM but Time 1 TOM does not predict Time 2 language
Early maternal mind-mindedness and TOM - Kirk, Pine, Wheatley, Howlett, Schulz, & Fletcher (2015) British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 434-445; Paternal mind-mindedness - Lundy (2013) Social Development, 22, 58-74. The objective was is maternal mind-mindedness (MM) related to children's later understanding of others' thoughts about the world? The method involved assessing MM at 10, 12, 16, 20 months, and TOM was assessed at 5-6 years. Describe the results.
MM was stable and related to children's TOM years later, paternal mind-mindedness was also related to child's TOM
What are individual differences in TOM development?
number of older siblings, parental use of mental state language, make believe play
TOM in childhood - Bosacki & Astington (1999) Social Development, 8, 237-255. The objective was to examine relations between TOM and social competence in childhood. The method involved 10 to 13-year-old children rating peers on social competence and also giving language and TOM tasks. Describe the results.
TOM and language related to social competence especially for girls
TOM in childhood - Brown, Donelan-McCall, & Dunn (1996) Child Development, 67, 836-849. The study examined younger children and roots of behaviors in early childhood, and how 4-year-old children react with sibling and friend. The study found that frequent use of mental state terms by child and friend or by child and sibling was related to _____.
more cooperative interactions in those dyads
To summarize cognitive development in early childhood, abilities emerge _____, there are relations between _____, and cognition develops in _____.
gradually, language and cognition, social contexts
What is childhood amnesia?
most adults cannot recall personally experienced events before the age of 3 ¹/₂ years
What aspects affect childhood amnesia?
gender differences, cultural differences, spacing of early memories
What defines autobiographical memory?
episodic memory, narrative, autobiography, self
What is memories of specific events that occurred at a particular time and place?
What is canonical linguistic form that provides context and evaluation for a personal memory?
What is a continuous stream of personal events that define a life story?
Episodic memories - Simcock & Hayne (2002) Psychological Science, 13, 225-231. The objective was are early event memories "translated" into language? The method involved 27, 32, and 39-month-old children engaging in a complex play event, memory was assessed either 6 or 12 months later, and productive and receptive language was assessed. Describe the results.
all children recalled the event in behavior, all children could provide some verbal recall, only those words that were in the child's productive vocabulary at time of experience were used in recall
The beginning of verbal memory - Fivush, Gray & Fromhoff (1987) Cognitive Development, 2, 393-409. The objective was to examine how and what very young children verbally recall of their personal past. The method involved asking 2 ¹/₂-year-old children to recall events that occurred in the recent past (up to 3 months ago) and distant past (more than 3 months ago). Describe the results.
all children verbally report accurate details about both recent and distant past events, children need many questions, cues, and prompts from an adult in order to provide information
The development of personal narratives in social context - Reese, Haden & Fivush (1993) Cognitive Development, 8, 403-430. The objective was to examine the role of parental "reminiscing style" on children's developing autobiographical memories. The method involved mothers conversing about past events with their children at 40, 46, 58, and 70-months of age. Describe the results.
high elaborative versus low elaborative reminiscing styles, mothers are consistent over time, high elaborative style early in development predicts children's better autobiographical memory later in development, mothers are generally more elaborative with girls than boys
What comprises reminiscing style?
level of elaboration, narrative coherence, emotional content, gender differences
Regarding reminiscing style, what does level of elaboration encompass?
high-elaborative or low-elaborative (repetitive)
Regarding reminiscing style, what does narrative coherence encompass?
The social-emotional context of autobiographical memory: attachment - Fivush & Vesudeva (2002) Journal of Cognition and Development, 3, 73-90. The objective was to examine relations between attachment and reminiscing style. The method involved mothers and their 4-year-old children conversing about past events, and mothers completed the Attachment Q-set. Describe the results.
more securely attached dyads reminisce about the past in more highly elaborative ways especially for girls
The social-emotional context of autobiographical memory: parenting - Bohanek, Hedrick, Baker-Ward, & Ornstein, under review. The objective was to examine relations between temperament, attachment, parenting, and reminiscing style. The method involved temperament, attachment, and parenting measures (sensitivity, cognitive development) being collected at 12 months, and a mother-child reminiscing task taking place at 36 months. Describe the results.
parenting was related to maternal elaborative style, parenting was also related to children's memory but not as much as maternal elaborative style
Cultural differences in mother-child reminiscing - Mullen & Yi (1995) Cognitive Development, 10, 407-419. The objective was to examine differences in Western and Eastern culture on parental reminiscing style (cultural constructions of self: independent versus interdependent). The method involved American and Korean mothers reminiscing with their preschool children. Describe the results.
American mothers are more elaborative than Korean mothers, American mothers focus on child as active agent while Korean mothers focus on behavioral and community standards
Cultural differences in mother-child reminiscing - Wang (2001) Cognitive Development, 16, 693-715. The objective was to examine cultural differences in the emotional content of autobiographical reminiscing. The method involved American and Chinese mothers conversing about past experiences with their 4-year-old children. Describe the results.
American mothers use more emotion language than Chinese mothers, both American and Chinese mothers use more emotion language with girls than boys
Cultural differences in age of first memory - MacDonald, Uesiliana & Hayne (2000) Memory, 365-376. The objective was to examine gender and cultural differences in age at earliest memory. The method involved asking European, Chinese, and Maori adults to recall first memory. Describe the results.
Maori had earlier age of first memory (about 2 ¹/₂ years) than Europeans (about 3 ¹/₂ years) or Chinese (about 5 years), memories reported by females had more information than those reported by men
Cultural differences: first memories - Weigle & Bauer (2000) Memory, 293-309. The objective was to examine differences in earliest memories in deaf and hearing adults. The method involved participants recalling two early and two later memories. Describe the results.
no difference in age of first memory, individuals born deaf to hearing parents had less dense early memories, the content of the early memories differed
Regarding the emergence of autobiographical memory, childhood amnesia is not a _____ but a gradual process of emergence of personal narratives. Memories of early experiences may endure in _____ but cannot be transformed into verbally accessible narratives. Individual differences in age of first memory and structure and content of autobiographical narratives may be related to styles of _____. Autobiographical memory development is related to _____ development.
barrier, behavior, parental reminiscing, social and emotional
In early childhood, what does the development of self emerge from?
intersubjectivity, attachment, intentions
Which stage(s) in Erikson's theory do children in early childhood experience?
autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years), initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years)
In the development of self in early childhood, what is distinguished?
the "I" and the "me"
In early childhood, what comprises the development of the "me"?
Regarding the development of the "me" in early childhood, what does self-recognition encompass?
the mirror task
Regarding the development of the "me" in early childhood, what does self-description encompass in progressive order?
physical qualities, activities, social qualities, psychological qualities
What is self-esteem?
judgments we make about our own worth
What does self-esteem include?
global appraisal and judgments of different aspects of self
What does self-esteem affect?
What aspects affect emotional development in early childhood?
parenting, understanding of others' emotions, self-regulation, self-conscious emotions, and empathy, sympathy, prosocial behavior
Self-conscious emotions - Lewis: embarrassment, shame & pride. The objective was to examine changes in embarrassment as a function of age, gender, and situation. The method involved children being observed in four situations at 22 months and 35 months: mirror, overpraise, request to dance by mother, request to dance by stranger. Describe the results.
mirror recognition was a prerequisite for embarrassment, embarrassment increases with age and with self-exposure, individual differences were stable and related to gender
Temperament and embarrassment - Lewis, Embarrassment, shame & pride, cont. Infants were studied longitudinally at 5, 13 and 22 months. Results showed that difficult temperament and heart rate variability at 5 and 13 months predicts _____ at 22 months.
The role of parents - Lewis, Embarrassment, shame & pride, cont. Parents and 3-year-old children were videotaped during problem-solving tasks. Results showed that _____ received more positive evaluations and _____ received more negative evaluations, and differences in shame behavior are related to _____.
boys, girls, parental negative evaluation
Emotional understanding - Denham, Zoller & Coucoud (1994) Developmental Psychology, 30, 928-936. The objective was to examine the socialization of preschooler's understanding of emotion. The method involved mother-child interactions about explaining emotions, positive and negative responsiveness to child's emotions, and child's identification of basic emotional expressions, emotion language, and self-generated causes for basic emotions. Describe the results.
socialization predicts aggregate emotion understanding, girls show better understanding of negative emotions, children with lowest understanding have mothers who show the most anger
Gendered Socialization of emotion - Fivush, Brotman, Buckner & Goodman (2000) Sex Roles. The objective was to examine gender differences in mother, father, daughter, son conversations about emotional experience. The method involved mothers and fathers discussing four emotional experiences with their 4-year-old daughter or son: happy, sad, angry, and scared. Describe the results.
mothers discuss emotions more than fathers, mothers and fathers discuss emotions more with daughters than sons especially sadness, parents place emotions in a more social context with daughters and a more autonomous context with sons
Emotions and attachment - DeRosnay & Harris (2002) Attachment and human development, 4, 39-54. The objective was to examine the relation between attachment and emotional understanding. The method involved 1.3 to 6-year-old children being given both attachment-related emotion task and neutral emotion task, and attachment was assessed via the Separation Anxiety Test. Describe the results.
children performed consistently on both emotion tasks, secure attachment was related to higher performance
What is feeling with another person and responding emotionally in the same way?
What is feelings of concern or sorrow for another person's situation?
What is the motivator of prosocial or altruistic behavior?
Empathy and sympathy - Young, Fox & Zahn-Waxler (1999) Developmental Psychology, 35, 1189-1197. The objective was to examine the relation between temperament and empathy. The method involved observing reactivity and affectivity at 4 months and inhibition at 2 years, and analyzing responses to distress of mother and stranger. Describe the results.
low reactive and low affect infants and inhibited toddlers show less empathy to stranger
What does emotions, play, and friendships in early childhood include?
development of play, development of friendships
Regarding emotions, play, and friendships in early childhood, describe the development of play.
nonsocial activity, parallel play, associative play, cooperative play
Regarding emotions, play, and friendships in early childhood, what does the development of friendships encompass?
from activities to intimacy
Predicting friendships - Cutting & Dunn (1999) Social Development, 8, 201-219. The objective was to examine individual differences in quality of peer interactions. The method involved 4-year-old children interacting with friend and a battery of assessments. Describe the results.
TOM, emotional understanding, and language are related to cooperative shared pretend, successful communication, and low conflict, family characteristics are also important
Emotional Competence - Schmidt, Demulder & Denham ( 2002) Early child development and care, 172, 451-462. The objective was to examine predictors of social and emotional competence in kindergarten. The method involved observed attachment at age 3, family stress at age 3, 4, and 5, and teacher and peer ratings of socioemotional competence at age 5. Describe the results.
less secure children and children who experience more family stress are more aggressive, more anxious, and less socially competent
Family relationships - Dunn et al (1999) Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1025-1037. The objective was to examine patterns of family relationships over time. The method involved assessing mother-partner relationship 14 weeks before birth of younger child and assessing mother-partner and sibling relationships when younger child is 4-years-old. Describe the results.
mother-partner relationship before birth predicts subsequent sibling relationship, current mother-child negativity is related to sibling relationship, patterns the same in step and non-step families, older sisters are generally more positive than older brothers
Family relationships: parenting style - Ispa, Carlo, Palermo, Su-Russell, Harmeyer, & Streit (2015).
Social Development, advance online publication. The objective was to examine influence of directive parenting over time. The method involved mothers and 2-year-old children engaging in play task and assessing maternal respect for child's autonomy and child's feelings of positivity and negativity towards mother in fifth grade. Describe the results.
mothers who were more directive at age 2 were less respective of their child's autonomy in fifth grade, those mothers who were less respective of their child's autonomy in fifth grade were viewed more negatively
What are the theoretical approaches to morality?
psychoanalytic, social learning, cognitive developmental
What are the theoretical perspectives of gender development?
psychoanalytic, social learning, biological bases, cognitive developmental, gender schema theory
Regarding theoretical perspectives of gender development, what do biological bases encompass?
Regarding theoretical perspectives of gender development, what does cognitive developmental encompass?
the gender concept
What is the gender concept?
gender labeling, gender stability, gender consistency, gender constancy
What are aspects of the cognitive pathways for gender-schematic and gender-aschematic children?
gender-salience filter, gender-schema filter (gender-schematic), interest filter (gender-aschematic)
What encompasses socialization of gender?
parental expectations before birth, "Baby X" studies, the power of stereotypes
Regarding socialization of gender and the power of stereotypes, children know the roles and activities associated with each gender by age _____.
Regarding socialization of gender and the power of stereotypes, children know emotions associated with each gender by age _____.
Gender development: the role of parents - Fagot & Leinbach (1996) Sex Roles, 32, 513-526. The objective was to examine relations among parents' gender schemas, parenting practices, and children's gender development. The method involved observing two parent families with their 18-month-old and 28-month-old children who had traditional parenting roles or shared parenting and assessing again at 4 years. Describe the results.
mothers in both groups displayed liberal sex role attitudes, fathers in traditional families showed more sex-typed socialization, children in traditional families showed earlier gender labeling and more sex-role knowledge at 4 years
Mothers' and children's use of generic references to gender during storybook conversations - Looked at generic references and found they increased with age, and even when statements defied stereotypes they still assumed all girls or boys are alike (individuals and exceptions are ignored). By age 2, _____ do this more than _____. By age 6, _____ were doing this more of this than _____.
mothers, children, children, mothers
Who is associated with gender development and the role of peers?
What does gender development and the role of peers encompass?
phenomenon of gender segregation, idea of "play styles"
With the phenomenon of gender segregation, how much time is spent with same-sex playmates by age 4?
3x as much
With the phenomenon of gender segregation, what is the ratio by age 6?
Regarding gender development and the role of peers, what is the phenomenon of gender segregation?
cross-cultural and cross-species
Regarding gender development and the role of peers, what does the idea of "play styles" imply?
increasing segregation following cross-gender interaction
How can gender stereotyping in young children be reduced?
delaying exposure to gender stereotyping, model non-traditional roles, encouraging mixed gender activities, pointing out exceptions
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