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35 terms

glossary of infectious diseases

for Biomedical technology
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Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome(AIDS)
Infectious disease syndrome that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV).
Allergen
Substance that can induce an allergic reaction or specific susceptibility.
Amantadine
Antiviral compound sometimes used to treat influnza type A infections.
Antibiotic
Microbial product,or its derivative, that kills or inhibits the growth of susceptible microorganisms.
Antibody
Glycoprotein produced in response to an antigen.
Antigen
Forign (nonself) substance to which lymphocytes respond.
Botulism
Form of food poisoning caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinim.
Candidiasis
Infection caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Typcally involves the skin.
Communicable Disease
Disease associated with an agent that can be transmitted from one host to another.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Chronic, progressive, fatal disease caused by Corynebaterium diphtheriae
DPT(diphtheria-pertusis-tetanus)vaccine
Vaccine containing 3 antigens that is used to immunize people against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus.
Endemic Disease
Disease that is commonly or constantly present in a population, usually at a relatively conatant low level.
Epidemic
Sudden increase in occurrence of a disease above the normal level in a particuar population.
Genital Herpes
Sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex type 2 virus.
Giardiasis
Intestinal disease caused by the protozoan Giardia Lamblia.
Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)
Type of hepatitis that is transmitted by fecal-oral contamination.
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)
Type or hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmitted throught body fluids.
Herd Immunity
Resistance of a population to spread of an infectious organism due to the immunity of a high propotion of the population.
Human Immunodeficieny virus(HIV)
Retrovirus that is associated with the onset of AIDS.
Immune Response
Response of the body to contact with an antigen leads to the formation of antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes.
Influenza (flu)
Acute viral infection of the respiratory tact caused by one of three strains of influenza virus (A,B and C)
Legionnaire Disease
Pulmonary form of disease caused with legionella pneumophila.
Morbidity Rate
Number of individuals who become ill with a particular disease within a susceptible population during specified time period.
Mortality Rate
Ratio of the number of deaths from a particular disease to the total number of cases of th disease.
Nosocomial Infection
Infection produced by a pathogenic agent that a patient acquires during hospitalization or treatment inside another health care facility.
Parasite
Organism that is usually harmless, but can be pathogenic in a compromised host.
Poliomyelitis
Acute, contagious viral disease of the central nervous system that can lead to paralysis.
Prion
Infectious particle that is responsible for certain slow-acting disease such as scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
Reservoir
Site, alternate host, or carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected.
Schistosomiasis
Helminth infection acquried from contact with water containing infected snails.
TB Skin Test
Tuberculin hypersensitivity test to detect a current or past infection with Mycobacterium teberculosis.
Tetanus
Often fatal disease caused by the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostidium tetani.
Vaccine
Perparation of killed microoganisms; living, weakened (attenuated) microorganisms; inactive or attenuated virus particles; inactivated bactrial toxions; or components (protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid) of the microorganism that are administered to stimulate an immune response.
vector
Living organism that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.
Virus
Infectious agent composed of a protien coat and a single type of nucleic acid.