39 terms

Chem: Chapter 2-1 matter

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physical property
a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.
state
the physical form of a substance; solid, liquid, gas, or plasma
solid
A state of matter that has definite shape and volume.
liquid
a state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
chemical reaction
The chemical changes involved when one or more substances react, forming one or more different substances.
chemical change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances.
homogeneous
A mixture in which all of the individual substances are evenly mixed throughout.
gas
a state of matter that has no definite volume or shape.
chemical property
A characteristic that describes how a substance changes into one or more different substances.
substance
A single kind of matter that is pure; has fixed composition and definite chemical and physical properties.
mixture
two or more substances mixed together.
heterogeneous
A mixture in which one or more substances are unevenly mixed throughout.
solution
A homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent; can be solid, liquid or gas.
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make the solution.
alloy
a solid solution containing metals.
aqueous
solution in which the solvent is water.
solvent
the substance that a solute is dissolved in; usually the substance in a solution that is present in the greatest amount.
physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.
energy
Ability to do work or to produce heat.
proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
electron
A negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus of an atom.
charge
a certain amount of electricity. Is also a measure of the positive or negative state of an ion.
nucleus
A region with protons and neutrons that is located at the center of an atom and contains most of the atom's mass.
chemical bond
An attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing of or transfer of electrons.
element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
atomic number
Number of protons in an atom.
atom
the smallest particle of an element having the chemical properties of the element.
chemical symbol
A one or two letter representation of an element.
periodic table
A chart of the elements organized by atomic number and electron arrangement that shows the repeating pattern of their properties.
metal
Elements on the left side of the periodic table; often shiny solids that are good conductors of heat and electric current.
nonmetal
Elements on the upper right side of the periodic table that are generally gases or dull solids; poor conductors of heat and electricity.
semimetal
Elements along the staircase of the periodic table that have some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.
monatomic
existing as single atoms or ions.
diatomic
A molecule consisting of pairs of bonded atoms.
(remember HI BrONClF)
polyatomic
existing as groups of three or more bonded atoms.
subscript
A number written slightly below and to the right of a chemical symbol that shows how many atoms of an element are in a compound.
compound
A molecule made up of atoms of two or more different kind of elements joined by chemical bonds.
chemical formula
A group of symbols that represents the number and kind of atoms in a substance.
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