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The Flu Shot
Terms in this set (13)
A ___________ is a non-living infections particle.
Different versions of the flu virus are called ____________.
The Spanish flu outbreak occurred in _________.
________________ determines which strains of influenza virus will most likely be those that are the most active during the flu season.
The World Health Organization
A(n) __________________ is a part of the viral coating that the immune system recognizes.
_____________ flu shots contain antigens from three strains of flu virus.
In North America, when are you most likely to get the flu?
If a certain strain of bacteria was called "highly virulent", what does this mean?
It has a high ability to cause disease
How was the Spanish flu different from the regular flu?
The Spanish flu targeted and killed healthy individuals
What is a "host"?
The species that a virus infects
How does your immune system respond to a virus that you have already been exposed to?
Adaptive immune response
Why does a new flu shot nee to be made each year?
The influenza virus mutates quickly, changing its antigens
What host is used to make the flu vaccine?
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(Continuation of Problem 86) Estimating vmax and Km from the Lineweaver–Burk graph as described in Problem 86 is not always satisfactory. A different transformation typically yields better estimates (Dowd and Riggs, 1965). Show that the Michaelis–Menten equation can be written as and explain why this transformation results in a straight line when you graph v0 on the horizontal axis and on the vertical axis. Explain how you can estimate vmax and Km from the graph.(REFERENCE ) Michaelis–Menten Equation Enzymes serve as catalysts in many chemical reactions in living systems. The simplest such reactions transform a single substrate into a product with the help of an enzyme. The Michaelis–Menten equation describes the initial velocity of such enzymatically controlled reactions. The equation, which gives the relationship between the initial velocity of the reaction (v0) and the concentration of the substrate (s0), is where vmax is the maximum velocity at which the product may be formed and Km is the Michaelis–Menten constant. Note that this equation has the same form as the Monod growth function. (a) Show that the Michaelis–Menten equation can be written in the form This formula is known as the Lineweaver–Burk equation and shows that there is a linear relationship between 1/v0 and 1/s0. (b) Sketch the graph of the Lineweaver–Burk equation. Use a coordinate system in which 1/s0 is on the horizontal axis and 1/v0 is on the vertical axis. Show that the resulting graph is a line that intersects the horizontal axis at −1/Km and the vertical axis at 1/vmax. (c) To determine Km and vmax, we measure the initial velocity of the reaction, denoted by v0, as a function of the concentration of the substrate, denoted by s0, and fit a straight line through the points in a coordinate system in which the horizontal axis is 1/s0 and the vertical axis is 1/v0. Explain how to determine Km and vmax from the graph. (Note that this is an example in which a nonlogarithmic transformation is used to obtain a linear relationship. Since the reciprocals of both quantities of interest are used, the resulting plot is called a double-reciprocal plot.)
How does an observation about an object differ from an inference about that object?
Describe how energy is transferred through ecosystems:
Half-life is the length of time required for half the atoms in a radioactive sample to a. decay. b. double. c. expand. d. be created.
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