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Philosophy Terms 2
God and Religion
Terms in this set (23)
a posteriori knowledge
knowledge based on experience
a priori knowledge
knowledge independent of (prior to) experience
-argues from facts about the universe to God's existence
-"Design arguments": evidence of intelligent designer
-argues from evidence of purpose to God
-proving the existence of God is contained in the concept of God
-argues from evidence of being to God
classic theistic concept
-one God who is the metaphysically ultimate being
-its origins are in Greek conception with influence by medieval theologians
reductio as absurdum
"reduction to absurdity"
-making an opponent's argument absurd using a comparable argument which leads to a ridiculous result
makes the deductive, ontological argument for God's existence as "that than which nothing greater can be conceived"
makes an reductio ad absurdum objection to Anselm's argument replacing God with the concept of a perfect lost island which "must exist to be perfect"
-wrote an argument with five ways to prove the existence of God
Aquinas' Five Ways
-Facts about change
-possibility and necessity
-governance of the world
facts about change
-everything must be moved by something, but this cannot go on to infinity. God is the unmoved mover.
every effect has a cause, but this cannot go on to infinity. God is the first cause
possibility and necessity
everything is dependent on something else in order to come into existence, but this cannot go on to infinity. God is necessary to exist (not dependent).
-everything needs a standard for comparison in terms of goodness
-God is the absolute standard for goodness
-cosmological and ontological
governance of the world
-the world exhibits design and intricate natural order
-God is the designer
analogy between the universe and other intelligently created things
-odds of current state of the universe are so low that intelligent design is more reasonable
irreducible complexity teleological
-some things in nature seem so complex that random chance could not have brought everything together in harmony
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