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AP Psychology - Social Psychology
Terms in this set (57)
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Central Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on logic and the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Peripheral Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior.
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
(Social) unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.
"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
the tendency to favor our own group.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT)
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Diffusion of Responsibility
reduction in feelings of personal burden in the presence of others
evaluation of other cultures according to the standards and customs of one's own culture
Conforming to a request or demand
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
Milgram's Obedience Study
An experiment in which Stanley Milgram found that people will usually obey an authority, even if they might think what they are doing is wrong.
asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment that people are more likely to comply with
Asch's conformity study
Participants were asked to select the line closest in line to length X. When cohorts gave obviously wrong answers, more than 1/3 of the subjects conformed and agreed with the incorrect choices. Depends on group size: 7 is optimal.
Stanford Prison Experiment
Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Murdered outside apartment- prompted to investigate bystander effect due to diffusion of responsibility
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