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Psychology midterm

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Course planning and instructional methods for school districts are usually handled by
educational psychologists
The method of learning that stresses examining one's own thoughts and feelings is
introspection
Social psychologists differ from personality psychologists in their focus on
external rather than internal influences
The practice of psychology is closely related to the natural sciences by
all of the above
The majority of psychologists are
clinical psychologists
In contrast to other early psychologists, Sigmund Freud gained his understanding of human behavior
in consultations with patients
William James rejected structuralism and focused on
how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
In SOAPS, the "A" stands for
audience
Human consciousness, experience, and self-awareness are the main concerns of
the humanistic perspective
The modern biological perspective of psychology studies
the effects of biological factors on our behavior
Modern psychology was born in the
1800s, after the birth of modern science
In statistics, Mean is the
average
Psychology is defined as the
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The contemporary psychoanalytic perspective stresses the influence of
conscious choice and self-direction
Many scientists do not believe in astrology because
experiments in astrology often do not yield the same results twice
Two research methods widely used by psychologists are
surveys and experiments
The school of behaviorism defined psychology as
the scientific study of observable behavior
According to Gestalt psychologists, much learning is accomplished by
sudden insight
In statistics, Correlation is the
measure of the relationship between two variables
In Identifying Cause and Effect for critical thinking, you should
all of the above
Developmental psychologists are especially concerned with
changes that occur throughout the life span
Counseling psychologists encourage their clients to
all of the above
In its early days, the school of psychoanalysis stressed that behavior was caused by
unconscious motives and conflicts
The main goals of psychology are to
observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior
In OPTIC, the "T" stands for
title
According to the American Psychological Association, psychologists can deceive participants in an experiment
if there will be no harmful effects from the study
Synapses are located between the
axons of one neuron and the dendrites of another
One of the most useful types of studies for showing the influence of heredity and environment examines
twins who have been reared apart
Men have traditionally taken part in psychological studies more often than women because
older studies drew participants from the military and universities
Scientists sometimes replicate a study using different participants in order to
make sure the findings are true for different groups of people
The testing method of observation investigates human behavior through
all of the above
Researchers learn about the brain by studying
all of the above
The two main divisions of the central nervous system are the
brain and the spinal cord
"Skinner boxes" are examples of
laboratory observation
One method that helps researchers gather information from many people is a
survey
Scientists are cautious about making generalizations from case studies because
case studies cannot always be replicated
The greatest drawback of the longitudinal method is that participants in the study
may drop out
In an experiment, it is useful to have a control group to
show the effect of the treatment and no other factors
Psychologists keep the records of their research participants confidential to
encourage participants to tell the truth
The adrenal glands produce
the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline
Sharpness of vision is known as
visual acuity
Smell and taste are known as the
chemical senses
According to the biopsychological approach, dreaming occurs because of the
random firing of neurons
Sounds are caused by
vibrations that cause changes in air pressure
Sleep is considered a necessary vital function because it
does all of the above
Rubbing a sore area may lessen the pain because
the nervous system can only handle a certain amount of information at one time
Biofeedback has been used successfully to treat
high blood pressure
The main colors of the visible spectrum are
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet
Rods in the retina allow us to recognize
outlines of objects
Amphetamines have been used to
help people stay awake
Many of our basic biological functions, such as breathing, exist at the
non-conscious level
The lens of the eye is responsible for
keeping objects in focus
Maintenance programs help people addicted to narcotics by all of the following except
removing all drugs from the addict
Sleep and meditation are examples of
altered states of consciousness
The cones in the retina are sensitive to
blue, green, and red light
"Role theory" suggests that people who are hypnotized
believe what they are doing is real
During a 24-hour day, people experience a sequence of changes in
all of the above
Some psychologists dispute that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness because
people's brain wave patterns do not change under hypnosis
Through the process of sensory adaptation, we learn to
block out sounds we hear frequently
Sensorineural deafness prevents people from hearing
sounds of certain frequencies
Most psychologists suggest that punishment is not the best way to deal with a problem because it
does all of the above
A variable-ratio schedule provides reinforcement
at any time
Classical conditioning is useful to animals and people because it helps them
do all of the above
The process of learning to ride a bicycle is an example of
shaping
The PQ4R method is an effective study method because it
is based on active learning
People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent in part because of
observational learning
A slot machine provides reinforcement to players based on a
variable-ratio schedule
The process by which a stimulus increases the chances of a preceding behavior occurring again is called
reinforcement
The skills needed for riding a bicycle are stored as
implicit memories
A visual code helps a person remember a fact by
creating a mental picture
Flashbulb memories are so vivid because they
recall events with special meanings
B. F. Skinner designed a device called a "teaching machine" for an educational method known as
programmed learning
Psychologist E. C. Tolman did experiments on rats that showed
that reinforcement is not always necessary for learning
An eyewitness' memory of a crime can be distorted by
hypnosis
Facts learned in classes at school become part of the
semantic memory
The representativeness heuristic helps people make decisions based on
the population that seems to apply to the problem
Studies have shown that musical ability may be linked to
spatial reasoning ability
The beginning of true language in babies occurs when they start
learning words
A balance sheet may help in solving a problem by
helping a person visualize the best course of action
Sensitivity to other people's feelings and the ability to respond to them appropriately are components of
the seven intelligences described by Howard Gardner
Prototypes make concepts easier to understand by allowing us to
picture a specific example of the concept
About half of the people who take the Wechsler tests score
between 90 and 110
The most reliable approach to solving a problem is
the algorithm
What type of thinking is most closely related to language?
All of the above are closely related to language
A person's "mental set" tends to make him or her solve problems by
trying an approach that was successfully used with a similar problem
Psychologist Charles Spearman believed that intelligence
was made up of two main factors
Young children often exhibit the behavior of overextension, in which they
try to talk about more things than they have words for
Mildly retarded adults are often able to
do all of the above
Creative problem solving involves
divergent thinking
Alfred Binet designed his aptitude tests for children of different age levels because he
assumed that intelligence increased with age
One example of continuous development is a child's
growth in weight and height from ages 2 to 11
Developmental psychologists study infancy and childhood to learn about
all of the above
According to Piaget, people reach cognitive maturity during the
formal-operational stage
Infants who are insecurely attached to their caregivers respond by
doing all of the above
Attachment is essential for infants because it helps them
rely on other people for their survival
Children of authoritative parents often grow up to be
achievement-oriented
John Watson and other behavioral psychologists believed that
an infant's mind is like a blank slate at birth
Babies show a preference for looking at human faces
by about four months
Studies of children in daycare centers have shown
mixed effects on these children's social development
Parents can encourage a child to master self-control by
consistent and firm enforcement of rules
The most dramatic gains in height and weight occur
before birth
Development of self-esteem in young children can be encouraged by
authoritative parenting
The type of development that developmental psychologists focus on is
all of the above
Babies pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden noises because of the
Moro reflex
Stage theorists explain development as occurring
rapidly and dramatically
Teenagers in the identity-achievement category tend to feel
a high level of self-esteem and self-acceptance
Menarche usually begins in females between the ages of
11 and 14
Puberty brings out differences between males and females through
the release of different types of hormones
The most rewarding part-time job a teenager can hold
fills a financial need in the teenager's family, community, or future
During adolescence, friendship becomes important in
all of the above
Gender differences in patterns of friendship that appear during adolescence
continue into adulthood
The biological stage of development known as puberty ends when
physical growth stops
During the period of parent-adolescent conflict, teenagers more often follow the
religious and political values of their parents
Because many women work outside the home, female adolescents are more likely to
do all of the above
A man's deep voice is an example of a
secondary sex characteristic
The behavior of adolescents is most affected by
cultural and social influences
The Hispanic quinceñera and the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are examples of
rites of passage
An adolescent's career and educational goals are most influenced by his or her
parents
Peer pressure for adolescents is strongest
at about age 15
Adolescents who retain close ties to their parents are more likely to
show self-reliance and independence
Women tend to undergo their midlife transitions
earlier than men do
People are influenced in their marital decisions by
all of the above
In recent years, the median age of first marriage has
risen
Free radicals are produced
as a result of all of the above
Boys tend to adjust to divorce
less easily than girls
Teenage marriages suffer a higher divorce rate than adult marriages because teenage couples
may lack personal stability
The concept of romantic love as a reason for marriage became widespread in Western society in the
1800s
During young adulthood, women are traditionally most concerned with
creating relationships with others
The percentage of children under the age of 18 living in single-parent households is about
25 percent
Menopause is caused by
the decrease in levels of estrogen and progesterone
The most common reasons couples give for divorce are
all of the above
The result of "no-fault" divorce laws has been
to make it easier to obtain a divorce
Middle adulthood spans the years from
40 to 65
Erik Erikson concluded that a key task of young adulthood is
all of the above
Children whose parents are divorced often experience the "sleeper effect," which
is a delayed reaction that shows up in early adulthood