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APUSH Unit 2
Terms in this set (103)
Period of an individual's temporary holding of real estate
The ability of a family to keep a household solvent and independent and to pass that ability on to the next generation
Household Mode of Production
The system of exchanging goods and labor that helped eighteenth-century New England freeholders survive on ever-shrinking farms as available land became more scarce
Someone who settles on land he or she does not own or rent. Many eighteenth-century settlers established themselves on land before it was surveyed and entered for sale, requesting the first right to purchase the land when sales began
A common type of indentured servant in the Middle colonies in the eighteenth century. Unlike other indentured servants, they did not sign a contract before leaving Europe. Instead, they found employers after arriving in America
An eighteenth-century philosophical movement that emphasized the use of reason to reevaluate previously accepted doctrines and traditions and the power of reason to understand and shape the world
A Christian revival moment characterized by Bible study, the conversion experience, and the individual's personal relationship with God. It began as an effort to reform the German Lutheran Church in the mid-seventeenth century and became widely influential in Britain and its colonies in the eighteenth century
The rights to life, liberty, and property. According to John Locke in Two Treatises of Government (1690), political authority was not given by God to monarchs. Instead, it derived from social compacts that people made to preserve them
The Enlightenment-influenced belief that the Christian God created the universe and then left it to run according to natural laws
A renewal of religious enthusiasm in a Christian congregation. In the eighteenth century, revivals were often inspired by evangelical preachers who urged their listeners to experience a rebirth
Conservative ministers opposed to the passion displayed by evangelical preachers; they preferred to emphasize the importance of cultivating a virtuous Christian life
They decried a Christian faith that was merely intellectual and emphasized the importance of a spiritual rebirth (evangelical preachers, many of them influenced by John Wesley and George Whitefield).
An increase in consumption in English manufactures in Britain and the British colonies fueled by the Industrial Revolution. Although it raised living standards, it landed many consumers — and the colonies as a whole — in debt
Landowning protesters who organized in North and South Carolina in the 1760s and 1770s to demand that the eastern-controlled government provide western districts with more courts, fairer taxation, and greater representation in the assembly
1700-1750; New England, men held power over women in the family; small farms and small families; new brides gave up legal property to their husbands. Gradually dies out, but gave freedom to immigrating poor farmers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god"
He was an Anglican minister with great oratorical skills. His emotion-charged sermons were a centerpiece of the Great Awakening in the American colonies in the 1740s.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700s. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
Albany Congress (1754)
Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French (led by Benjamin Franklin, first meeting of all colonies to debate unification)
Plan of Union
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when the chief was killed. The war was a failure for the Indians; it did not drive away the British, but the widespread uprising prompted British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
Fought between the colonies of British America and New France, supported by military units from their parent countries. Hostilities intensified between the two as they both attempted to colonize land in the Ohio Valley. It marked the beginning of conflicts between Great Britain and the American colonists
Fort Necessity (1754)
British fort hastily created to defended by George Washington that was captured by the french in 1754
Battle of Quebec (1759)
Historic British victory over French forces on the outskirts of Quebec. The surrender of Quebec marked the beginning of the end of French rule in North America.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east
Sugar Act of 1764
British law that decreased the duty on French molasses, making it more attractive for shippers to obey the law, and at the same time raised penalties for smuggling. The act enraged New England merchants, who opposed both the tax and the fact that prosecuted merchants would be tried by British-appointed judges in a vice-admiralty court
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury
Currency Act of 1764
It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
Stamp Act of 1765
British law imposing a tax on all paper used in the colonies. Widespread resistance to this prevented it from taking effect and led to its repeal in 1766.
The claim made by British politicians that the interests of the American colonists were adequately represented in Parliament by merchants who traded with the colonies and by absentee landlords (mostly sugar planters) who owned estates in the West Indies.
Quartering Act of 1765
A British law passed by Parliament at the request of General Thomas Gage, the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops.
Stamp Act Congress
A congress of delegates from nine assemblies that met in New York City in October 1765 to protest the loss of American "rights and liberties," especially the right to trial by jury. The congress challenged the constitutionality of both the Stamp and Sugar Acts by declaring that only the colonists' elected representatives could tax them.
Sons of Liberty
Colonists — primarily middling merchants and artisans — who banded together to protest the Stamp Act and other imperial reforms of the 1760s. The group originated in Boston in 1765 but soon spread to all the colonies.
English Common Law
The centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the lives and property of the British monarch's subjects.
Declaratory Act of 1776
Law issued by Parliament to assert Parliament's unassailable right to legislate for its British colonies "in all cases whatsoever," putting Americans on notice that the simultaneous repeal of the Stamp Act changed nothing in the imperial powers of Britain.
Townshend Act of 1767
British law that established new duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors imported into the colonies. They led to boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies.
Revenue Act of 1767
Part of the Townshend Acts that put a duty on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported by the colonies
Colonial radicals pressured merchants to stop importing British goods. In 1774 nonimportation was adopted by the First Continental Congress and enforced by the Continental Association. American women became crucial to the movement by reducing their households' consumption of imported goods and producing large quantities of homespun cloth.
Committees of Correspondence
A communications network established among towns in the colonies, and among colonial assemblies, between 1772 and 1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments.
Tea Act of May 1773
British act that lowered the existing tax on tea and granted exemptions to the East India Company to make their tea cheaper in the colonies and entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance to the Tea Act led to the passage of the Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts.
Four British acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. Known in America as the Intolerable Acts, they led to open rebellion in the northern colonies.
September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts. The Congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott of trade with Britain.
An association established in 1774 by the First Continental Congress to enforce a boycott of British goods.
Revenue Act of 1762
Tightened collection of trade duties that merchants had evaded through bribery
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
A 1774 war led by Virginia's royal governor against the Ohio Shawnees, who had a long-standing claim to Kentucky as a hunting ground. The Shawnees were defeated and Dunmore and his militia forces claimed Kentucky as their own.
Colonial militiamen who stood ready to mobilize on short notice during the imperial crisis of the 1770s. These volunteers formed the core of the citizens' army that met British troops at Lexington and Concord in April 1775.
Second Continental Congress
Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created its own money, and declared independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
A document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances that declared separation from Britain. Adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, it ended a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.
The principle that ultimate power lies in the hands of the electorate.
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts (opposed the Revolution and refused to sign the Declaration of Independence)
government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea
1770's-1782 King George III's stout prime minister (governor during Boston Tea Party) in the 1770's. His rule fell in March of 1782, which therefore ended the rule of George III for a short while.
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence
Royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army
Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775)
1st Battle of the American Revolution- The famous "shot heard around the World"-American Win
Battle of Long Island (1776)
First major engagement of the new Continental army, defending against 32,000 British troops outside of New York City.
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
A multistage battle in New York ending with the surrender of British general John Burgoyne. The victory ensured the diplomatic success of American representatives in Paris, who won a military alliance with France.
A military camp in which George Washington's army of 12,000 soldiers and hundreds of camp followers suffered horribly in the winter of 1777-1778.
Philipsburg Proclamation (1779)
A proclamation that declared that any slave who deserted a rebel master would receive protection, freedom, and land from Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown (1781)
A battle in which French and American troops and a French fleet trapped the British army under the command of General Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. The Franco-American victory broke the resolve of the British government.
A hidden tax on the farmers and artisans who accepted Continental bills in payment for supplies and on the thousands of soldiers who took them as pay. Because of rampant inflation, Continental currency lost much of its value during the war; thus, the implicit tax on those who accepted it as payment.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. In the treaty, Great Britain formally recognized American independence and relinquished its claims to lands south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River.
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776
A constitution that granted all taxpaying men the right to vote and hold office and created a unicameral (one-house) legislature with complete power; there was no governor to exercise a veto. Other provisions mandated a system of elementary education and protected citizens from imprisonment for debt.
Three branches of government, each representing one function: executive, legislative, and judicial. This system of dispersed authority was devised to maintain a balance of power and ensure the legitimacy of governmental procedures.
Articles of Confederation
The written document defining the structure of the government from 1781 to 1788, under which the Union was a confederation of equal states, with no executive and limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defense.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A land act that provided for orderly settlement and established a process by which settled territories would become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. It also banned slavery in the Northwest Territory.
A 1786-1787 uprising led by dissident farmers in western Massachusetts, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, protesting the taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the state's government.
A plan drafted by James Madison that designed a powerful three-branch government, with representation in both houses of the congress tied to population; this plan would have eclipsed the voice of small states in the national government.
New Jersey Plan
Alternative to the Virginia Plan drafted by delegates from small states, retaining the confederation's single-house congress with one vote per state. It shared with the Virginia Plan enhanced congressional powers to raise revenue, control commerce, and make binding requisitions on the states.
Supporters of the Constitution of 1787, which created a strong central government; their opponents feared that a strong central government would corrupt the nation's newly won liberty.
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution. They feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of citizens. They also complained that it failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights.
Federalist No. 10
An essay by James Madison that challenged the view that republican governments only worked in small polities; it argued that a geographically expansive national government would better protect republican liberty.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
British Commanding General at the start of the American Revolution
American General whose troops defeated the British forces at Saratoga.
He played an important role in personally financing the American side in the Revolutionary War from 1781 to 1784. Hence, he came to be known as the 'Financier of the Revolution'.
Baron von Steuben
Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.
Judith Sargent Murray
Female rights activist following the revolution who argued that the brain is not a sex organ. She wrote "On the Equality of Sexes".
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day in 1776 at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.
Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies. France wanted to piss of Britain basically.
Strengths of Articles of Confederation
- Congress power to make peace, money, appoint army off., post office, deal indian affairs
- sense of union
- creation of central authority
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
-no federal leader to lead the country)
-no national taxes (no ability to gain national revenue to pay for national interests)
-no federal court system (no ability to settle disputes between states)
-lack of strong federal government
-no power to regulate commerce
-limited military = no protection
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Mount Vernon Conference
A meeting between Maryland and Virginia in 1785 to discuss navigation of rivers, but turned into discussion of trade problems between states
A meeting held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
an agreement during the Constitutional Convention protecting slave holders; denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State, and, for 20 years, the power to act on the slave trade
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
An Iroquois leader who played a pivotal role in the beginning of the French and Indian War when he killed Jumonville in front of George Washington, after they had become allies.
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Gaspee Affair (1772)
British ship stationed off the coast of Rhode Island to intercept smugglers. Burned by the colonists who were tried in England. Established the Committees of Correspondence.
Battle of Bunker Hill (1775)
First major battle of the Revolution. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition However, the British suffered more deaths.
Intolerable Acts (1774)
A series of laws passed by the British Parliament after the Boston Tea Party intending to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance. It was a wake up call for the colonies. The Boston harbor closed. England took over all governmental activities.
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