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Ornithology Exam 2
Terms in this set (59)
What is sound?
waves of air pressure detectable as varying pitch and loudness
When something has a low pitch what do the waves of air pressure look like?
the waves of air pressure are far apart
when something has high pitch what do the waves of air pressure look like?
the waves of air pressure are close together
Pitch can also be described as what? How can it be measured? What are the units (for ornithologists)? Example?
-Cycles per second (Hertz)
-high vs low notes
Loudness can also be described as what? What is it a measure of? What are the units? Example?
-It is a measure of intensity
-Loud vs soft notes
What type of graph measures Pitch/Frequency? What does it tell you about Pitch/Frequency?
-They tell you the frequency of noise over time
What type of graph measures Loudness/Amplitude? What does it tell you about Loudness/Amplitude?
- It tells you how loud a sound is
What are pure tones? Example?
-Pure tones are a single frequency
What are complex tones? What does this look like on a sonogram?
-Complex tones are a dominant frequency plus harmonics
-on a sonogram, complex tones are a thick baseline line tone followed by faint lines which represent the harmonics
What structure helps birds produce songs?
Where is the syrinx located?
At the junction of two bronchi
What structures in the syrinx move to produce tone? How do they move?
-Internal and External labium
-they get close or move apart to allow airflow which produces sound (DOUBLE CHECK WITH BOOK)
What makes the syrinx of passeriformes different than most birds? Describe the difference
-Passerines have intrinsic and Extrinsic muscles around the syrinx which allows them to make more complex sounds
- Most birds only have extrinsic muscles around the syrinx
In bird songs a syllable is who many notes?
A trill is how many syllables?
Birds that make a bubbly sound show what type of Frequency patten?
They go from low Khz frequency to very high frequency in a quick period of time
(Usually birds of paradise display this)
What is bird song mimicry? Example of birds that do this (2)?
This is when birds imitate the sounds of other things or birds
-The lyre bird can imitate all the sounds it hears in the forests to attract mates
-The mocking bird can mimic predators to stop competition
What is bird song complexity? What was the example given in class?
-This is when a bird is able to generate complex songs
-EX: The wood thrush (a passerine) is able to sing 2 songs at once. This means it uses harmonics.
How does special anatomy help birds generate songs (aside from syrinx)? Examples from class?
-Some bird have anatomical structures (aside from the syrinx) that help them create sounds
-The Gunnison grouse have air sacs in their chest that allow them to make a "glub" sound.
-Cassowaries have a long trachea that coils around the sternal keel. This trachea acts as a trumpet and allows them to make a deep grunt noise that sounds like a bear
-Other bird (cannot remember name) makes noise using their tail feathers
What traits make birds songs different from calls?
- longer, more complex
-under hormonal control
-used in sexual selection (in male only)
-used in guarding territory/ or male-male competition
What traits make bird calls different from songs?
-made by both genders
-coordinates behaviors: mobbing, begging, alarms, warning, territorial defenses, copulation, flocking
What is the purpose of territorial singing in birds?
Attract mates and repel rivals
What can a bird's call/song communicate to other birds? What kinds of experiments have shown us these meanings?
-Playback experiments have shown us this
How many groups of birds "learn" songs? What are they?
-Hummingbirds, Parrots, Oscine Passerines
What happens to the rest of of the groups in terms of songs? What is the fraction of these bird species? List their groups.
-They inherit the songs fully formed
-This happens to 1/2 of all bird species
-This includes sub-oscine passerines, Non-Passerines
What constitutes culture?
Name the three ways culture traits are passed on in birds. Describe each.
1. Vertically- parent to offspring
2. Horizontally- Among unrelated individuals
3. Obliquely- across generations
Give the in class example of bird dialects from class.
The Yellowhammer is originally from UK, But was introduced to New Zealand. The bird's native UK song type gradually vanished and the NZ type was preserved.
True or False:
Birds have extremely poor eyesight
Birds have excellent eyesight (even see better than humans)
What degree of eye rotation do birds have? Can they see completely around?
-270 degrees rotation of eyes not 360
Describe the location of the eyes for birds that are predators
Predators have eyes together and forward to zero in on predator
Describe the location of the eyes for birds that are prey
Prey have wide eyes which are father apart to see a wide range
What is the nictitating membrane? What id the function?
-A membrane that covers the eyes of birds
- It moistens the eye and protects it from dust
-Some species use it as underwater googles when diving
Bird have two muscles for focusing in the eye. What are they? Describe their function
-Crampton's muscle and Brucke's muscle
-Crampton--> contracts cornea
-Brucke's--> Contracts lens for light
Which eye muscle do we share with birds?
Do bird have a high cone density in their eye? What does this mean?
-It means they have many cones in their eyes. This allows for greater resolution and higher distance.
-The cones also mean they see many colors including some in the UV spectrum
Where are the high density of cones located in the eye? Describe what the structure is.
Fovea- concave depressions of high cone density in eye
Compare the number values for cones in the fovea for birds and humans
Birds--> 400,00 - 1 million cones per mm^2
Humans--> 200,000 cones per mm^2
List the types of fovea birds have and their functions. List what type of bird would have each.
1. Central Fovea- deeper more complex; helps show visual field on either side of bird and detect movement of small images
2. Temporal Fovea- resolve areas of binocular vision and used for looking far distances.
-Central Fovea present in most birds like woodpeckers, and visually acute passerines
-Temporal fovea: this is a second fovea present in fast-flying and diving birds like hawks, and eagles
Doe birds get oxygen though their retina? why or why not?
No, bc it is made of solid cones not vessels like humans
How do birds get oxygen into their eyes?
-Through the Pectin
-It is a radiator like structure in the back of a bird's eye, that give the eye Oxygen
Why is the pectin folded?
To get more surface area and allow more O2 into the eye
Humans and bird share how many color wavelengths? What are they? Which do we not share with birds?
-red, blue, green
-ultraviolet/ or violet
What is the advantage of having an extra wavelength for birds?
-They can see more colors
-Wider range of colors
-See UV rays
-See blend of UV rays and color
Of the 3 color wavelengths shared between humans and birds list the size of each.
Blue- short wavelength
Green- medium wavelength
Red- Longest wavelength
How do birds use their ability to see 4 color wavelengths for gender identification? Give example from class.
-Bird use their UV color wavelength to distinguish male and female birds in the mating season. They specifically reply on a bird's UV color
-Male and female bluethroats look similar to one another. To differentiate sex
What is tetra-chromatic?
When birds combine their 4 color wavelengths together to form colors
What is magneto-reception? How do birds do this?
-Bird's ability to fell magnetic field on earth
-Birds can do this through specialized cells in their beak
True of False:
Owls have better hearing than humans?
How do the ears of birds form sound?
Eardrums transmit vibrations in air through columella (bone) to fluid filled cochlea to generate sound
What do owls have good hearing? Give an in class example (2)
1. they have a wide face which collects sounds
2. Vertical Asymmetrical ears so they can tell where things are on the vertical symmetrical plane & horizontal plane. this is good for finding prey
3. The great grey owl has fur and allows it to be completely silent. the Oilbird uses echolocation in caves. It does this through clicking.
How is mechanorecption used in ears?
-it helps with balance and sense of orientation for the body
-semicicle canals of ears
What is a structure that helps with mechanoreption? Where is it located?
-Herbst Corpsucles : has pads of nerve density
-It is located in the tip of bird's beak (this makes their beaks very sensitive)
Do birds have a good sense of smell? Why or why not?
-this is bc their olfactory bulbs are small compared to the size of it's brain
What is unique about kiwi's and Turkey Vultures?
They have a greta sense of smell unlike most birds?
Describe the sense of smell for regular passerines, vs seabirds
-Passerines have an okay sense of small
-Seabirds are good at smelling, this is from the smell of dimethyl sulfide given off by plankton when eaten by krill. SO birds can locate fish
What is unique about the crested Auklet?
They give off a citrus scent which makes them smell like oranges
Do birds have a good sense of smell?
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