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33 terms

Mitosis and Meiosis Vocabulary

Mitosis and Meiosis vocabulary
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anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Asters
microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles
Asexual reproduction
reproduction without the fusion of gametes
Blastula
early stage of an embryo produced by cleavage of an ovum
Centromere
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
Centriole
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules
Chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
Chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Crossing over
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
Cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
Diploid
having two of each chromosome
DNA Replication
The process of doubling the DNA that occurs before mitosis
Germ Cells
the only cells that can undergo meiosis
Haploid
the actual number of different types of chromosomes a cell processes
Homologous Pairs
in diploid cells, a pair of identical chromosomes is called an homologous
Interphase
the phase of a cell's life cycle between the reproductive stages of mitosis
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Metaphase
the second stage of mitosis
Microtubules
mitosis, cell shape, in cilia and flagella
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Oogenesis
development of ova
Ova
another word for eggs
Ovum
one egg
Polyploid
having more than a diploid number of chromosomes
Prophase
the first stage of mitosis when chromosomes form from chromatin and the nuclear membrane is absorbed into the cell
Reduction Division
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Sexual Reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
Somatic Cells
body cells
Spermatogenesis
development of spermatozoa
Spindle fibers
help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules
Synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
Telophase
the final stage of mitosis