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Chapter 8 Psychology David Myers (Memory)
Terms in this set (53)
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrival of information
a detailed memory that is very descriptive that is part of your own personal story (normally occurs with a surprising event).
implanting/changing your memory by giving you false or misleading info. (Elizabeth Loftus)
can be very inaccurate in crime, can be altered by the way you are questioned. Their is no way to tell if an eyewitness is truly reliable/accurate
Creation of false memories
happens a lot in your childhood memories. You have something implanted and then you begin to imagine and believe that it actually happened
What is to blame for many wrongful convictions?
If someone is holding a weapon your focus tends to only be on the weapon and not on the person holding it. Less likely to be able to identify the gunman
the psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal
Crossrace identification problem
easier for you to identify someone of your own race
you remember a face but attribute it to the wrong source. Example: a woman claimed that the face of the man who raped her was the man she had been watching on tv at the time.
Repressed Sexual Assault Debate
block out the bad memories. is it possible to forget abuse? well, it is also possible to falsely remember abuse too.
created the "forgetting curve"- much of what we learn we may quickly forget, course of forgetting is initially rapid then levels off with time; learned lists of nonsense syllabus and measured how much he retained when relearning each lists
Most of what you learn you forget right away
Information Processing Model
memory operates much like a computer to encode, save and retrieve information
very short memory that holds on to everything you touch. When you fist touch something it is meaningless until it is translated.
Short Term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Vivid mental images, resembling a photograph. Very few people possess such ability.
very brief visual memory, only about 250 milliseconds. If images are presented fast enough, you can overlap them mentally.
Brief storage for auditory input. To comprehend, you ahve to hold on to words till the end to understand what is being said. Lasts about 3-4 seconds, and is important for language perception
What you want to remember/not remember
Capacity of Short Term Memory
7 plus or minus 2. Once capacity is filled you become aware that the info is slipping away from you.
In your short term memory, you group things together in order to retain for info.
Duration of Short Term Memory- Brown Peterson technique
how long info will stay in your memory if you are rehearsing it in your head (fades about 15-30 seconds after)
In an interview lineup of applicants where do you want to be?
You want to be either at the beginning or the very end (beginning becomes part of the long term memory)
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
first few words receive greater attention/ are transferred to long term memory
item at the end of the list are still in short term memory.
the way in which you encode information (superficial level vs. processing deeply) helps your remembrance level
encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
the two types of rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal
short term memory, repeating the information over and over again. example: just reading the book without notes or anything
long term memory, encode the information in a new way relate it to your life. This deeper fashion will help you remember it in the long run. example: reading the book and taking notes in your own words
relate to things you already know (similar to chunking). When you put the new info with things you already know it is easier to organize
spacing out your studying= beneficial to results. the more spaced out the studying the better retained the info will be. Also it is more likely to be remembered long term
Massed vs. distributed practice
distributed practice: spacing the studying out
a false belief of knowing the information. Causes over-confidence
coming up with the info yourself rather than just reading it helps with remembering it.
continued rehearsal even when the info is mastered. This increases your chance of remembering it when it needs to be retrieved (aka during the test)
anything you can declare you know from memory
concepts and world knowledge- you dont know where you learned it you just know it. example: the first president of the United States
knowledge of personal information- a specific experience in your life. Example: what you had for dinner
the inability to remember things from your very early childhood. Things that kids under three are most likely to actually remember are traumatic experiences and special memories
Allusion of Truth Principle
the more often you hear/see something the more likely you are to believe it. Example: staring at the wrong answer choice on a test will make it start to seem correct
"Tip of the tongue effect"
cannot recall info even when you know that you know it. You are able to access part of the memory but not fully
Recognition vs. Recall
Recognition: multiple choice exams; Recall: free response. You are more likely to do well on recognition
Context dependent memory
If you learn something in a certain context you are more likely to remember it in that context. (seeing a teacher in the classroom vs. at a bar)
state dependent memory
internal state of mind when learning new material. You want to be in the same state of mind while learning that you are when you have to recall it.
Mood Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
could not form new memories from a specific event forward (hypo campus removed)
inability to retrieve info just before a traumatic event; example: a concussion often makes you forget a bit before it. The more severe the concussion the more you forget before. It is very rare to forget everything.
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