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Holy Alliance

This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.

Decembrist Uprising

Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.

Crimean War

A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed

emacipation of serfs

Alex II did this, however many people were too poor to buy land afterwards; still many's lives stayed same


Local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the
middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.

Trans-Siberian railroad

Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.

Count Sergei Witte

Russian Finance minister who oversaw Russia experience tremendous industrial growth; reformed commercial law, protected infant industries, supported steamship co., promoted nautical and engineering schools; Russia grew enormous coal and iron industries


highly educated, cultured people


people who believe there should be no government

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)


Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI

Russian Revolution of 1905

Imperialist ambitions brought defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905 and political upheaval at home. The Bloody Sunday massacre, when the tsar's troops fired on a crowd of protesting workers, produced a wave of indignation. By the summer of 1905, strikes, uprisings, revolts, and mutinies were sweeping the country. A general strike in October forced Nicholas II to issue the October Manifesto, which granted full civil liberties and promised a popularly elected parliament (Duma). The Social Democrats rejected the manifesto and led a bloody workers' uprising in Moscow in December. Middle-class moderates helped the government repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy. (p.840-841)

Russo-Japanese War

Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.


This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power

Stolypin reforms

Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.


Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful


Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.

Dutch studies

Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.

Matthew Perry

A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.

Meiji Restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.


Japanese parliament


The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.

Sino-Japanese War

(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China,

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