Chapter 10 Psychology Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

Motivation
All the processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior.
Motives
Needs or desires that energize and direct behavior toward a goal.
Primary Drives
States of tension or arousal that arise from a biological need and are unlearned.
Social Motives
Motives that are acquired through experience and interaction with others.
Work Motivation
Conditions and processes responsible for the arousal, direction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort of workers on the job.
Achievement Motivation
Factors that move people to seek success in academic settings.
Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to behave in a certain way because it is enjoyable or satisfying in and of itself.
Extrinsic Motivation
Desire to behave in a certain way in order to gain some external reward or to avoid some undesirable consequence.
Drive-reduction Theory
Theory of motivation suggesting that biological needs create internal states of tension or arousal-called drives- that organisms are motivated to reduce.
Drive
Internal state of tension or arousal that is brought about by an underlying need and that an organism is motivated to reduce.
Homeostasis
Natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state in order to ensure physical survival.
Arousal
State of alertness and mental and physical activation.
Arousal Theory
Theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
Stimulus Motives
Motives that cause humans and other animals to increase stimulation when the level of arousal is to low.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Principle that performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task; higher arousal for simple tasks, moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty, and lower arousal for complex tasks.
Industrial/ Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
Psychologists who apply their knowledge in the workplace and are especially interested in work motivation and job performance.
Goal Setting
Approach to work motivation that involves establishing specific, difficult goals rather than simply telling people to do their best in the absence of assigned goals.
Expectancy Theory
Approach that explains work motivation in terms of workers' beliefs about the effectiveness and value of the effort they put forth on the job.
Need for achievement
Need to accomplish something difficult and to perform at a high standard of excellence.
Goal Orientation Theory
View that achievement motivation depends on which of four goal orientations and individual adopts.
Self-actualization
Pursuit of self-defined goals for personal fulfillment and growth.
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)
Part of the hypothalamus that acts as a feeding center to incite eating.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Part of the hypothalamus that acts as a satiety center to inhibit eating.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Measure of weight relative to height.
Obesity
BMI more than 30.
Metabolic Rate
Rate at which the body burns calories to produce energy.
Fat Cells
Serve as storehouses for liquefied fat in the body; their number is determined by both genes and eating habits, and they decrease in size but not by number with weight loss.
Set Point
Weight of the body normally maintains when one is trying neither to gain nor to lose weight.
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of self-starvation, and excessive weight loss.
Bulimia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge eating.
Emotion
Identifiable feeling state involving physiological arousal, a cognitive appraisal of the situation or stimulus causing that internal body state, and an outward behavior expressing the state.
James-Lange Theory of emotion
Theory that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
Theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, providing the conscious mental experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the physiological arousal.
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
Two-factor theory stating that for an emotion to occur there must be physiological arousal ad a cognitive interpretation or explanation or the arousal, allowing it to be labeled as a specific emotion.
Lazarus theory of emotion
Theory that a cognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response and all other aspects of an emotion, including physiological arousal, depend on it.
Basic Emotions
Emotions that are unlearned and universal, that are reflective in the same facial expressions across cultures, and that emerge in children according to their biological timetable of development; fear, anger, disgust, surprise, happiness, and sadness are usually considered basic emotions.
Display Rule
Cultural rule that dictates how emotions should generally be expressed and when and where their expression is appropriate.
Polygraph
Lie-detecting device that detects changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and skin conductance response.
Facial- feedback hypothesis
Idea that the muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce the corresponding emotions.
Triangle theory of love
Sternberg's theory that three components-intimacy, passion, and commitment-singly and in carious combinations, produce seven different kinds of love.
Consummate love
According to Sternberg's theory, the most complete form of love, consisting of all three components-intimacy,passion,and commitment.