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Viruses Test in Biology
Terms in this set (46)
a parasite lives in or on living organisms, causing the harm/a host is the living organisms that a parasite thrives on
infectious particle that is nonliving composed of DNA/
a viroid is much smaller then a virus and is known for its small size/a prion is tiny bits of protein put together and it doesn't contain DNA or RNA
Lytic Cycle/Lysogenic Cycle
lyses hot cet/phage DNA is incorporated into the host genome
All viruses posses what 2 parts?
DNA or RNA and protein coats
The term "virus" comes from the Latin word meaning?
What is the name of the protein coat that surrounds a virus?
Name given to a virus that only infects bacterial cells.
How does a bacteriophage attach to a host cell?
A bacteriophage that reproduces only by the lytic cycle is called a...?
The name given to viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA.
Name given to a virus that contains RNA as its genetic material.
What is the best defense that humans have against viruses?
What name is given to small, circular molecules of RNA that have no protein coats that are known to cause plant diseases?
Infectious particles made up of proteins rather than DNA or RNA.
What contribution was made to the study of viruses by Martinus Beijerinck?
proved that an agent smaller then bacteria was causing tobacco mosaic disease; named very small small particles "viruses"
What contribution was made to the study of viruses by Wendell Stanley?
living organisms do not crystallize, so Stanley inferred that viruses were not "alive"
What is the comparison in size between eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells, and viruses?
eukaryotic cells- largest
prokaryotic cells- medium
List 5 diseases that are caused by viruses.
chickenpox, flu, hurpea, AIDS, HPV
Name 4 structures that would be found inside cells but not in viruses.
mitochondria, chloroplast, GA, lysosome
Name 3 activities that are carried out by cells but not by viruses.
making chlorophyll, breaking down food, photosynthesis
What do all viruses have in common with one another?
use machinery of host cell to reproduce to make more viruses
What must viruses do in order to reproduce themselves?
inside living cells, trick virus/hijack, infect living cells
What makes viruses so highly specific for the type of cell they infect?
must bind precisely to proteins on the cell surface and then use a host's genetic system
Are viruses "living" or "nonliving." Make a list of the "living" characteristics of a virus:
can reproduce only inside living cells, mutate or change, have DNA or RNA
Make a list of "nonliving" characteristics of viruses.
non-cellular, no metabolism, no food/energy required, be crystalized, dehydrated and stored indefinitely, come to "life" only when injected
Describe the 2 ways that a virus might reproduce inside a cell.
a) some viruses replicate themselves immediately, killing the host cell
b) other viruses replicate themselves in a way that doesn't destroy the host cell
Name the 5 stages to the lytic cycle. After each stage, give a brief description of what is happening in each stage.
a) attachment- tail fibers are used to attach to receptor sites on the surface of the host cell
b) entry- phage DNA is injected. empty capsid remains outside. host cell DNA is destroyed
c) synthesis- the host cell is directed to produce viral genomes and protein capsids
d) assembly- the viral DNA or RNA is assembled inside the protein coat
e) the cell swells, bursts, and releases 100's of new viruses
What always happens to the host cell at the end of the lytic cycle?
releases 100's of new viruses
Describe what happens to the host cell of a lysogenic virus.
makes copies of the viral genetic material indefinitely
What might happen to cause a prophage to become virulent?
reproducing only by a lytic cycle
What is a vaccine? What does it do to our body?
contains a harmless variation of the pathogen. our immune system is learning to recognize it the next time that we're exposed to it
Why do we have to get a new flu shot every year to ward off the flu? Why doesn't one shot provide protection year after year?
our system is learning to recognize it. the flu viruses adapt and change. they evolve quickly
List 3 ways that viral diseases can be controlled.
vaccines, medicine, quarantine
Disease causing agents are know as....
Some viruses have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. What is the role of the enzyme?
Viruses are placed into groups based on....
the type of organism they infect
Viruses have the ability to infect a specific type of cell because they recognize....
Which of the following are true concerning viruses?
viruses do not grow, viruses do not maintain homeostasis, viruses have no energy requirements
Viruses pose a challenge to the human immune system because.....
There is no cure for any of the viral diseases.
Antibiotics are effective against viruses.
Viruses cause chicken pox.
Viruses can grow, reproduce, and carry out respiration.
Viruses cause strep throat.
Viruses need a host in order to reproduce.
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