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CD 553 Neuro 2
Terms in this set (59)
T/F Patients with highly localized brain injuries usually have deficits of basic processes in addition to higher level impairments such as language and abstract thinking, while patients with diffuse brain injury of large amounts of neural tissue usually only present with deficits of basic impairments.
basic responses to stimulation
maintained attention over a period of time
attention maintained during instances of competing stimuli
attending to two activities concurrently
_____ is an individual's readiness to respond over long intervals, while _____ is an individual's rapidly changing response to stimulation.
tonic alertness, phasic alertness
_____ is typically assessed with cancellation tasks, while _____ is assessed with strings of auditory/visual stimuli.
selective attention, sustained attention
T/F Memory is an independent function which can be easily differentiated from processes of attention, communication, and executive function.
limited capacity; information decays after a few seconds
space in which immediate products of cognitive processes are stored
lasting store of information
memory for past experiences/events/info
memory for what we know about things
memory for past events that are specific to a time/location
organized knowledge of the world/gained knowledge
knowledge of how to perform behavioral routines learned in the past
A patient with Alzheimer's disease presents with memory loss. The patient's wife reports that he is very confused and disoriented. He cannot recall his name or location. However, he is still able to play the piano, which he has played since a child. Playing the piano is an example of what type of memory?
T/F Standard tests of cognition and communication are sensitive enough to determine level of impairment for executive function.
A patient presents for a speech evaluation following a tight-hemisphere stroke. He is impulsive and speaks out of turn. During the evaluation, he frequently makes inappropriate comments, and seems unaware that they are not appropriate. Deficits of what cognitive function are most likely the cause for such behavior? Which lobe of the brain is most likely affected?
executive function; frontal
T/F Adults with right hemisphere brain injury are highly aware of their limitations, succinct in their speech, understand abstract meaning, and easily pick up on pragmatic cues.
_____ impairment occurs when adults with RHD are unable to draw or copy geometric designs. _____ impairment occurs when individuals have difficulty orienting to extra personal space.
Arousal, vigilance, and orientation are all sub sections of what skill?
A patient presents to you with uniform fluency. However, you not slow and regular DDK and diminished pitch. Additionally, the patient has reduced stress. What is the most likely etiology?
Which of the following are appropriate sub tests for assessing RHD?
two-point tactile discrimination
reading and writing
lexical semantic tests
all of the above
The RICE-R scale is an assessment of which of the following:
all of the above
When treating pragmatic deficits in patients with RHD, which of the following is an appropriate way to establish a therapeutic baseline?
standardized pragmatic assessment
video sample conversation
both A and C
Which of the following is the best way to generalize treatment?
enlist the help of family members, friends and caregivers
Which of the following tests is the most sensitive in determining neglect?
three cancellation tests (bells, letters, stars)
You treat a patient for RHD. You ask them to draw a clock. Which of the following would you expect?
a clock face with numbers only on the right side
This test for patients with a TBI, is known for having a greater range of item difficulty than most tests for traumatically brain injured adults. It contains some items that non-brain injured adults are likely to find difficult. It contains 41 subtests divided among 5 sections of organization, perception and discrimination, organization, recall, and reasoning. What is the name of this test?
Attentional impairments are a universal consequence of TBI. Being able to shift attentional focus from one stimulus to another or form one aspect of a task or situation to another is known as _______. Being able to attend simultaneously to two aspects of a task, such as carrying on a conversation while driving an automobile in traffic is known as ______.
alternating attention, divided attention
T/F Of several patient-related variables, age is the most important predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury. Older patients with TBI have higher mortality than younger patients.
T/F Traumatically brain injured patients at RLAS levels of VI, VII, and VIII speak fluently with normal speech rate and prosody, but they say more than is needed and stray from the topic.
T/F The most severe head injuries are physiologic injury to the brain without evidence of structural alteration or a "concussion".
Which of the following is NOT an example of orientation training?
T/F During sensory stimulation (sometimes called coma stimulation or coma arousal therapy) the patient is repeatedly exposed to auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, and taste stimuli, usually in several 10-15 minute intervals of stimulation each day.
A deliberate, volitional (sometimes unconventional) behavior that allows the patient to perform activities that otherwise would be impossible is known as a _____?
__________ is a type of injury that is caused by blows that strike the head off center, causing it to rotate and move at an angle away from the point of impact. _______ is a type of injury that occurs when the head is struck by a force aligned with the center axis of the head.
angular acceleration injuries, linear acceleration
The probability of a second traumatic brain injury is three times greater for individuals who have a previous traumatic brain injury than for the general population.
T/F Alzheimer's disease is described by three microscopic changes in brain neurons: neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, and granulovacuolar degeneration. These changes are detectable by computerized tomography scans (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI).
T/F One way to differentiate Pick's disease from Alzheimer's disease is that people with Pick's disease are hyperoral - meaning they eat excessively and indiscriminately put things in their mouth.
Early stage Lewy body dementia is often confused with __________.
The progression of Pick's disease is marked by
shrinkage of the brain (typically posterior inferior frontal lobes and anterior superior temporal lobes)
loss of function
proliferation of glial calls throughout the cortex
A, B, and C
AIDS Dementia complex is the most common neurologic consequence of AIDS. It is caused by infection of the brain with the human immunodeficiency virus. The infection causes pathologic changes to _________?
subcortical white matter
both A and B
Which of the following diseases is the fastest growing and most expensive clinical population in the United States?
Which disease is characterized by deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia and the brain stem (especially in a part of the basal ganglia called the substantia nigra)?
T/F Normal adults sometimes get mentally worn down by work, social obligations, housecleaning and other activities of daily life so apathy and loss of initiative can NOT be considered early signs of dementia.
T/F The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy is known and can be either viruses or slowly acting toxins.
T/F As Parkinson's disease progresses, speech rate increases, and articulation becomes progressively more indistinct. Micrographia is common in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.
T/F Language is more affected than cognition, memory and intellect in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.
T/F The most sensitive tests for detecting early cortical dementia include highly practiced and automatic activities. These could include counting, reciting the days of the week, reciting the alphabet, etc.
Which of the following is not a part of the DSM-IV definition for dementia?
impaired short-term memory
impaired long-term memory
impaired abstract thinking
all of the above
Binswanger's disease is a rare disease caused by multiple infarcts in the subcortical white matter tracts. This disease is usually seen in individuals with severe _________.
In Alzheimer's disease, __________ become twisted, tangled, contorted, and clumped together. These are threadlike structures normally found in the cell bodies, dendrites, axons and sometimes in the synaptic endings of neurons in the brain.
T/F When a person enters the middle stages of dementia, impairments of memory and attention decrease in severity and affect less dimensions of daily life.
Which of the following is a clinical assessment instrument for identifying and quantifying communicative deficits of persons with dementia (specifically those caused by Alzheimer's disease). This test contains four screening subtests to evaluate speech discrimination, visual perception and literacy, visual fields and visual agnosia. It also contains 14 subtests to evaluate mental status, linguistic expression, verbal memory, linguistic comprehension and visuospatial construction.
Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD)
T/F The key to differential diagnosis of dementia versus aphasia is administering nonverbal tests of intelligence and problem solving.
_______ medications may diminish the severity of chorea in the early stages of Huntington's disease but they may exacerbate depression or agitation and at high dosages or with prolonged use may cause parkinsonian symptoms to appear.
T/F Progressive supranuclear palsy resembles Parkinson's disease in the presence of rigidity and slowness of movement, but it differs from Parkinson's disease in the absence of tremor and in the presence of rigidity affecting muscles of the neck and trunk, rather than the muscles of the limbs.
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