MCAT Behavioral Sciences Chapter 6

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Self-discrepancy theory:each of us has three selves: actual self, ideal self, and ought selfActual self:our self concept, the way we see ourselves as we currently areIdeal-self:person we would like to beOught-self:the representation of the way others think one should beSelf-esteem:describes our evaluation of ourselvesWhen our three selves are close to one another the _____ our self-esteem will behigherSelf-efficacy:our belief in our ability to succeedOverconfidence:can lead us to take on tasks for which we are not ready, leading to frustration, humiliation, or sometimes even personal injuryLearned helplessnes:occurs when places in a constantly hopeless scenario, self-efficacy can be diminishedLocus of control:refers to the way we characterize the influences in our livesinternal locus of control:the perception that you control your own fateExternal locus of control:the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.Libido:sex driveFixation:when a child is overindulged or overly frustrated during a stage of developmentIf fixation proceeds into adulthood it is calledneurosisOral stage:gratification is obtained primarily through putting objects into the mouth, biting, and sucking.Oral stage age:0 to 1 yearAn orally fixated adult would likely exhibitexcessive dependencyAnal stage:Libido is centered on the anus and gratification is gained through the elimination and retention of waste materialsAnal stage age:1-3 yearsAn anally fixated adult would likely exhibitexcessive orderliness (anal-retentiveness) or sloppinessPhallic or Oedipal stage:centers on the resolution of the Oedipal conflict for male children and the Electra conflict for female children; sublimation of libido energy; establishment of sexual identityPhallic or Oedipal stage age:3-5 yearsLatency stage:Libido is largely sublimated during this stage; lasts until puberty is reachedGenital Stage:Begins at puberty and lasts through adulthood; if previous stages have been successfully resolved, the person will enter into normal heterosexual relationshipsFreud's stages of sexual Development:1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. GenitalErickson's crisis stages:1. Trust/ mistrust 2. Autonomy/ shame and doubt 3. Initiative/guilt 4. Industry/inferiority 5. Identity/ role confusion 6. Intimacy/ isolation 7. Generativity/ stagnation 8. Integrity/ despairTrust vs. mistrust age:0-1 yearTrust vs. mistrust existential question:can I trust the world?Trust vs. mistrust:If resolved, the child will come to trust their environment as well as themselves. If mistrust wins, the child will be suspicious of the world possibly throughout lifeAutonomy vs. Shame and Doubt age:1-3 yearsAutonomy vs. Shame and Doubt existential question:Is it okay to be me?Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt:Favorable outcome is feeling able to exert control over the world and to exercise choice as well as self-restraintInitiative vs. guilt age:3-6 yearsInitiative vs. guilt existential question:Is it okay for me to do, move and act?Initiative vs. Guilt:Favorable outcomes include a sense of purpose, the ability to initiate activities, and the ability to enjoy accomplishment. If quilt wins, the child may either unduly restrict themselves or may overcompensate by showing offIndustry vs. Inferiority age:6-12 yearsIndustry vs. Inferiority existential question:Can I make it in the world of people and things?Industry vs. Inferiority:If resolves, the child will feel competent, be able to exercise his or her abilities and intelligence in the world, and effect the world in the way the child desires. Unfavorable resolution results in a sense of inadequacy, a sense of inability to act in a competent manner, and low self-esteemidentity vs. role confusion age:12-20 yearsidentity vs. role confusion existential question:who am I? what can I be?Identity vs. role confusion:Favorable outcome id fidelity, the ability to see oneself as a unique and integrated person with sustained loyalties. Unfavorable outcomes care confusion about one's identity and an amorphous personality that shifts from day to dayIntimacy vs. Isolation age:20-40 yearsIntimacy vs. Isolation existential question:Can I love?Intimacy vs. Isolation:Favorable outcomes are love, the ability to have intimate relationships with others, and the ability to commit oneself to another person and to one's own goals. Unfavorable outcomes is avoidance of commitment, alienation and distancing of oneself from others and one's idealsgeneraticity vs stagnation age:40 to 65 yearsgeneraticity vs stagnation existential question:Can I make my life count?Generaticity vs. stagnation:Successful resolution results in an individual capable of being productive, caring and contributing member of society. Unsuccessful resolution acquires a sense of stagnation and may become self-indulgent, bored and self-centered with little care for othersintegrity vs despair age:65 years to deathIntegrity vs. Despair existential question:Is it okay to have been me?Integrity vs. despair:If resolved, we will see wisdom (detached concern for oneself) with assurance in the meaning of life, dignity, and an acceptance of the fact that one's life has been worthwhile, along with a readiness to face death. Unsuccessfully resolved, there will be feelings of bitterness about one's life, a feeling that life was worthless, and at the same time, fear over one's impending deathKohlberg's stages of moral reasoning:1. Obedience 2. Self-interest 3. Conformity 4. Law and order 5. Social contract 6. Universal human ethicsKohlberg's phases of moral reasoning:1. preconventional 2. conventional 3. postconventionalPreconventional Morality Phase:first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behaviorPreconventional Morality phase age:PreadolescencePreconventional Morality phase stagesobedience and self-interestObedience:Avoiding punishmentSelf-interst:gaining rewardsStage two of Kohlber's moral reasoning is often called the instrumental relativist stage becauseit is based on the concepts of reciprocity and sharingConventional morality Phase:individual begins to see themselves in terms of their relationships to othersConventional Morality phase age:adolescence to adulthoodConventional morality phase stages:Conformity and law and orderConformity:Person seeks the approval of others; emphasis on "good boy, nice girl"Law and order:maintains the social order in the highest regardPostconventional morality phase:a level of moral reasoning that not everyone is capable of and is based on social mores, which may conflict with laws.Postconventional morality phase age:Adulthood (if at all)Postconventional morality phase stages:Social contract and universal human ethicsSocial contract:Views moral rules as conventions that are designed to ensure the greater good with reasoning focused on individual rightsUniversal human ethics:reasons that decisions should be made in consideration of abstract principlesZone of proximal development:- skills and abilities that have not yet fully developed but are in the process of development - gaining these skills successfully requires help of a more knowledgeable other (adult)Role- Taking:Practice for later in life; when a child begins to understand the perspectives and roles of othersTheory of mind:understanding how a friend is interpreting a story while you tell it; recognize and react to how others think about uslooking-glass self:an image of yourself based on what you believe others think of youReference group:the group to which we compare ourselvesPersonality:Describes the set of thoughts, feelings, traits and behaviors that are characteristic of an individual across time and different locationPsychoanalytic/ psychodynamic theories of personality:Assumption of unconscious internal states that motivate the overt actions of individuals and determine personalityFreud's structural model of personality three entities:Id, ego and superegoId:consists of all basic primal, inborn urges to survive and reproduce; Functions according to the pleasure principlePleasure principle:aim is to achieve immediate gratification to relieve any pent-up tensionPrimary process:id's response to frustration: obtain satisfaction now, not laterWish fulfillment:mental imagery, daydreaming, fantasy that fulfills need for satisfactionEgo:operates according to the reality principleReality principle:taking into account objective reality as it guides or inhibits the activity of the id and the id's pleasure principle; aim is to postpone the pleasure principle until satisfaction can be actually obtainedSuperego:Personality perfectionist, judging our actions and responding with pride at our accomplishments and guilt at our failuresSuperego's two subsets:1. Conscience 2. ego-idealConscience:a collection of the improper actions for which a child is punishedEgo-ideal:consists of proper actions for which a child is rewardedPreconscious thoughts:Thoughts we aren't currently aware ofUnconscious thoughts:thoughts that have been repressedLife instincts are also callederosEros:promote an individual's quest for survival through thirst, hunger, and sexual needsDeath instincts are also calledThanatosThanatos:represent an unconscious wish for death and destructionDefense mechanisms:First, they deny, falsify or distort reality; second they operate unconsciouslyThe 8 main defense mechanisms:1. Repression 2. Suppression 3. Regression 4. Reaction Formation 5. Projection 6. Rationalization 7. Displacement 8. SublimationRepression:forces undesired thoughts and urges to the unconscious and underlies many other defense mechanisms, the aim of which id to disguise threatening impulses that may find their way back from the unconsciousSuppression:more deliberate, conscious form of forgettingRegression:reversion to an earlier developmental stateReaction formation:individual suppresses urges by unconsciously converting them into their exact oppositesProjection:individuals attribute their undesired feelings to othersRorschach inkblot test:relies on the assumption that the client projects his or her unconscious feelings onto the shapeThematic Apperception Test:A series of ambiguous pictures are presented to the client, who is asked to make up a story about each oneRationalization:justification of behaviors in a manner that is acceptable to the self and societyDisplacement:Describes the transference of an undesired urge from one person or object to another.Sublimation:The transformation of unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviorsRepression example:A man who survived six months in a concentration camp cannot recall anything about this life during this time periodSuppression example:A terminally ill cancer patient puts aside his anxiety to enjoy a family gatheringRegression example:A husband speaks to his wife in "baby talk" when telling her bad newsReaction formation example:Two coworkers fight all the time because they are actually very attracted to one anotherProjection example:A man who has committed adultery is convinced his wife is cheating on him, despite lack of evidenceRationalization example:A murderer who claims that while killing is wrong, his victim "deserved it"Displacement example:When sent to his room as a punishment, a child begins to punch and kick his pillowSublimation example:a boss who is attracted to his employee becomes her mentor and advisor.Jung divided the unconscious psyche into two parts:1. personal 2. collectiveCollective unconscious:Powerful system that is shared among all humans and considered to be a residue of the experiences of our early ancestorsArchetypes:In Jungian psychoanalysis, a thought or image that has an emotional element and is a part of the collective unconsciousImportant Jungian archetypes1. persona 2. anima 3. animus 4. shadowPersona:the mask that we wear in public; part of our personality that we are present to the worldAnima:a man's inner womanAnimus:a woman's inner manShadow:unpleasant and socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings, and actions in our consciousnessself (according to Jung):Point of intersection between the collective unconscious the personal unconscious, and the conscious mindJung's three dichotomies of personality:1. Extraversion v. Introversion 2. Sensing v. Intuiting 3. Thinking v. FeelingExtraversion:E, orientation toward the external worldIntroversion:I, orientation toward the inner, personal worldSensing:S, obtaining objective information about the worldIntuition:N, working with information abstractlyThinking:T, using logic and reasoningFeeling:F, using a value system or personal beliefMyers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI):A classic personality test that pairs Jung's three dichotomies with one other to label specific personality types Extraversion vs. Introversion Sensing vs. Intuiting Thinking vs. Feeling Judging vs. PerceivingJudging:J, preferring orderlinessPerceiving:P, preferring spontaneityInferiority complex:individuals sense of incompleteness, imperfection, and inferiority both physically and sociallyCreative self:the force by which each individual shapes his uniqueness and establishes his personalityStory of life:represents the manifestation of the creative self and describes a person's unique way of achieving superiorityFunctional finalism:notion that an individual is motivated more by his expectations of the future than by past experiencesThe phrase "life would be perfect if only..." sums up what concept?Functional finalismNeurotic needs:needs directed towards making life and interactions bearable; need for affection and approval, need to exploit others and need for self-sufficiency and independence.Neurotic needs are problematic if1. disproportionate in intensity 2. indiscriminate in application 3. partially disregard reality 4. have a tendency to provoke intense anxietyBasic anxiety:vulnerability and helplessness caused by inadequate parentingBasic hostility:neglect and rejection cause angerObjective reactions theory:object refers to the representation of parents or other caregivers based on subjective experiences during early infancyhumanistic/phenomenological theorists:focus on the value of individuals and take a more person-centered approach, describing those ways in which healthy people strive toward self-realizationGestalt therapy:practitioners tend to take a holistic view of the self, seeing each individual as a complete person rather than reducing him to individual behaviors or drivesForce field theory:one's current state of mind, the sum of the forces (influences) on an individual at a particular timepeak experiences:profound and deeply moving experiences in a person's life that have important and lasting effects on the individualPersonal construct psychology:a person who devises and tests predictions about the behavior of significant people in his or her lifeUnconditional positive regard:a therapeutic technique by which the therapists accepts the client completely and expresses empathy in order to promote a positive therapeutic environmentType theorists:create a taxonomy of personality typesTrait theorists:describe individual personality as the sum of a person's characteristic behaviorsType A personality:behavior that tends to be competitive and compulsive in natureType B personality:laid-back and relaxed personalityTrait:clusters of behaviors to describe individualsPsychoticism:measure of nonconformity or social devianceExtraversion in PEN model:measure of tolerance for social interaction and stimulationNeuroticism:measure of emotional arousal in stressful situationsBig 5 personality traits:Openness, Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness NeuroticismCardinal traits:traits around which a person organizes his or her lifeCentral traits:major characteristics of the personality that are easy to inferSecondary traits:personal characteristics that are more limited in occurrence; aspects of one's personality that only appear in close groups or specific social situationsFunctional anatomy:Behavior continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created the behaviorBehaviorist:Championed by B.F. Skinner; based on the concepts of operant conditioningToken economy:positive behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for privileges, treats or other reinforcerssocial-cognitive perspective:focusing not on just how our environment influences our behavior, but also on how we interact with that environmentreciprocal determinism:idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and environment all interact with each other to determine our actions in a given situationBiological perspective:personality can be explained as a result of genetic expression in the brainEach of the following is considered a part of a person's self concept EXCEPT:The ought selfAs a gender identity, androgyny is defined as:high femininity, high masculinityA high school student struggles consistently with math and feels that no matter how hard he studies, he "just doesn't get it." Which of the following is the most likely short-term result with respect to his ability to do math?Low self-efficacyA district attorney with an internal locus of control wins an important court trial. Which of the following best represents the lawyer's attribution of the events?"I won because I made great arguments and had more experience than the defense"A person keeps his desk extremely tidy and becomes very nervous whenever things are disorganized or out of place. In which of the following stages would a psychodynamic therapist sat the man had become fixated?The anal stageAccording to Erickson's stages of psychosocial development, which of the following would be the most important for a recent college graduate to accomplish?Forming and intimate relationship with a significant otherMatt and Cati discuss the reasons why they avoid driving above the speed limit. Matt says that he wants to avoid the traffic fine, while Cati says that speeding is dangerous and if everyone did it, there would be more accidents and people would get hurt. According to Kohlberg, which of the following describes the phases of moral reasoning demonstrated by Matt and Cati, respectively?Preconventional; conventionalA child finds that she cannot make an origami swan by herself, but is able to do so when observing and being assisted by an adult. This scenario is described in the ideas of which of the following theorists?Lev VygotskyWhich of the following is a conclusion that can be made from research in role-taking and observational learning?A female child is more likely to model the behavior of another female than maleA man feels extremely guilty after having an extramarital affair. According to the psychodynamic perspective, which of the following is responsible for this anxiety?The superegoA women advances through the ranks of a company, eventually becoming the CEO. Which of the following Jungian archetypes reflects this woman's drive to be successful within the company?The animusResearchers discover that polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene can be associated with thrill-seeking behavior, and that individuals with certain forms of the gene are more likely to become extreme athletes and have more dangerous hobbies. Which of the following theories is supported by this discovery? I. The social cognitive perspective II. The behavioral perspective III. The biological perspectiveI and III onlyAn EMT sees himself as a bit of a rebel, but is highly sociable and is able to keep calm in an emergency. This person would likely score in the lower range of which of the following traits? a. Psychoticism b. Neuroticism c. Extraversion d. ConscientiousnessNeuroticismStockholm syndrome is a phenomenon in which a victim of a kidnapping or hostage situation may feel affection for his or her captors. A psychoanalyst might explain stockholm syndrome by citing which of the following defense mechanisms?Reaction formationHaving struggled for years through an economic recession, a young professional begins to buy lottery tickets every Friday. "If I won the lottery," he reasons, "I'd finally have the life I've always wanted. All my stress would go away and I could live comfortably." His thoughts regarding winning the lottery are most representative of:Functional finalism