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Terms in this set (30)
5. Describe the structure and distribution of lymphatic vessels, including the capillaries, larger vessels and ducts. Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.
6. Describe the source of lymph and mechanism(s) of lymph transport. Describe the path of lymph circulation.
7. Describe the basic structure and cellular population of lymphoid tissue. Differentiate between diffuse and follicular lymphoid tissues.
8. Describe the general location, histological structure, and functions of lymph nodes.
9. Name and describe the other lymphoid organs of the body. Compare and contrast them with lymph nodes, structurally and functionally.
10. Compare and contrast innate (nonspecific) defenses with adaptive (specific) defenses.
11. Name the surface membrane barriers and describe their physical, chemical, and microbiological mechanisms of defense.
Explain why fever can be beneficial.
•Causes liver and spleen to hold onto iron and zinc to inhibit bacterial growth
•Increases metabolic rate of tissue cells to speed up repair
Explain the role of diffusion, filtration, and reabsorption in the exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes and fluid in capillaries.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.
functions of the lymphatic vessels.
Collect excess tissue fluid and blood proteins
Return tissue fluid and blood proteins to bloodstream
Describe how net filtration pressure across the capillary wall determines movement of fluid across the capillary wall.
Relate net filtration pressure to potential edema and the need for a functional lymphatic system.
structure and distribution of lymphatic vessels,
Describe the mechanism of fever and the role of pyrogens.
The mechanism of fever appears to be a defensive reaction by the body against infectious disease. When bacteria or viruses invade the body and cause tissue injury, one of the immune system's responses is to produce pyrogens.
Explain why inflammation can be beneficial.
•Prevent spread of damaging agents
•Disposal of cell debris and pathogens
•Alerts adaptive immune response
•Sets stage for repair of tissue
List and explain the cause of the four cardinal signs of inflammation
•Several things may cause inflammation:
•Extreme heat, chemicals, physical trauma, infection
Summarize the cells and chemicals involved in the inflammatory process.
•Chemical "alarm" - chemicals released by injured or stressed tissue cells and immune cells (like mast cells)
•Histamine is released
•Other inflammatory chemicals:
•Kinins, cytokines, prostaglandins, complement
Blood proteins that help inflammation, blood pressure control, coagulation, and pain
interferons are proteins that interfere with viral infections and virus production
chemicals released from neutrophils monocytes and other cells that stimulate fever production
•Pyrogens act on a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus to raise body temperature
Describe the mechanisms of inflammation initiation.
consists of an increase in the permeability of blood vessels and migration of leukocytes and other blood contents to the damaged site, which can cause redness, heat,...
15. Explain how complement and interferon function as antimicrobial chemicals.
Describe natural killer cells and discuss their function.
provide examples of important phagocytic cells in the body.
Phagocytes are a type of cell that engulf and "eat" other cells. Two types of phagocytes are macrophages and neutrophils, which are both essential cells involved in immunity. They are particularly involved in the innate immune system
steps of phagocytosis
Fusion with lysosomal granules
Destruction of the target
the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
importance - Part of the swelling due to injury or infection is caused by diapedesis. The white cells are intensely active, because as well as destroying bacteria, they also work to form a barrier around an infection that can help prevent the rest of the body from becoming infected.
Cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus
Importance - chemotaxis has been accepted as an important mechanism for mobilizing phagocytic and immune cells at sites of infection, tissue injury, and immune reactions
•Opsonization is done so phagocytes can adhere to what they will engulf
•Opsonins are complement proteins or antibodies
•Opsonins give phagocytes something to "grab onto"
Opsonization is the important process in host defense by which particles or complexes are made readily ingestible for uptake by phagocytic cells.
membrane attack complex (MAC)
complement system components that assemble to form pores in membranes of invading cells
an important antibacterial defense.
Name the surface membrane barriers and describe their physical, chemical, and microbiological mechanisms of defense.
surface membrane barriers
provide the first line of defense against the invasion of microorganisms
infamatory chemical release
•All inflammatory chemicals dilate local arterioles and make local capillaries leakier
•Some attract WBCs to injured area
The mechanisms by which antibodies (Ab) can inactivate or affect the functioning of antigens (Ag) include ______. Select all that apply.
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