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The starch-digesting enzymes of the saliva and pancreatic juice are called what?


Pepsin is produced from a zymogen called what?


As a result of the exchange of Cl⁻ for HCO₃⁻ by the parietal cells, blood leaving the stomach while digestion os underway exhibits a low-pH what?

Alkaline Tide

The partially digested slurry that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is called what?


Each hepatic lobule consists of plates of epithelial cells radially arranged around a blood vessel called the what?

Central Vein

Dietary lipids are taken up by a lymphatic capillary called the _______ in each villus of the small intestine.


Tissue layers of the digestive tract in correct order from lumen to external surface are what?

Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa (Lp+MmS=MeS)

Bacteria-destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of what?


Vitamin B₁₂, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires what for its absorption?

Intrinsic Factor

What are produced in epithelial cells of the small intestine as lipids are absorbed?


What consists of a bile ductule and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein?

Hepatic Triad

All of the following except what contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine?


Name 5 components of bile.

bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, neutral fats (BsBCPNf)

Which component of bile has/have a digestive function?

Bile salts

All of the following enzymes digest proteins except what?


The absorption of what depends on the presence of vitamin D?


Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?


The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by what?

the Mesentery

What process allows excess glucose to be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen?


When oxygen is in short supply, pyruvic acid is reduced to what?

Lactic Acid

Pyruvic acid is converted to __(what transition step?)__ under aerobic conditions and then it enters what cycle?

Acetyl coenzyme A; Krebs cycle

Pyruvic acid is dependent on the availability of what? (glycolosis=O₂ independent)

Oxygen (O₂)

Coenzyme A is derived from what B vitamin?

Pantothenic Acid

Krebs cycle is also referred to as what two names? How many steps?

Citric Acid Cycle; (Tricarboxylic Acid) TCA Cycle; 8

Krebs cycle is a series of biochemical reactions that occur in what?

Matrix of Mitochondria

The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the what?

Reduced Coenzymes (NADH+H⁺ and FADH₂)

Catabolism is what kind of reaction?


Anabolism is what kind of reaction?


What consists of movements of the GI tract that aid chemical digestion?

Mechanical Digestion

Series of catabolic (hydrolysis) reactions that break down large carbohydrate, lipid, and protein food molecules into smaller molecules that are usable by body cells.

Chemical Digestion

Mechanical digestion consists of peristaltic movements called what?

Mixing Waves

Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by what?


Pepsin is an enzyme which is most effective in the very _____ environment of the _____.

acidic; stomach

The acid (HCl) in the stomach is secreted by the stomach's what cells?

Parietal Cells

In chemical digestion, what splits certain molecules in butterfat of milk into fatty acids and monoglycerides? (has a limited role in the adult stomach-active during infancy)

Gastric Lipase

The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances, but it does allow what 4 things to absorb through it's lining?

Water (some), electrolytes, drugs (certain ones - asprin), and alcohol

Most food leaves the stomach 2-6 hours after ingestion. What will leave the earliest? Followed by what? Then followed by what third?

Carbohydrates; proteins; fats

What secretes hormones?

Pancreatic islets

What secretes a mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes called ________.

Acini; pancreatic juice

Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest what 4 things?

starch, proteins, fats, nucleic acids

What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests starch?

Pancreatic Amylase

What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests proteins?

Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Carboxypeptidase

What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests fats?

Pancreatic Lipase

What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests nucleic acids?

Ribonuclease, Deoxyribonuclease

Pancreatic juice contains ______, which converts the acid stomach contents to a slightly _____ pH (7.1-8.2), halting stomach pepsin activity and promoting activity of pancreatic enzymes.

Sodium Bicarbonate; alkaline

The lobes of the liver are made up of lobules that contain what?

Hepatic Cells (liver cells or hepatocytes)

What 4 things are the lobes of the liver made up of?

Hepatic cells; sinusoids; stellate reticuloendothelial cells; central vein

What receives a double supply of blood from the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein?


All blood eventually leaves the liver through what?

Hepatic Vein

Carbohydrates are broken down into _____ for absorption during ______ digestion in the small intestine.

Monosaccharides; Chemical

What digestion starts in the stomach with pepsin at low pH?

Protein Digestion

Proteins are converted to what by trypsin and chymotrypsin in protein digestion?


Most lipid digestion in an adult occurs where?

Small Intestine

Process where bile salts break the globules of triglycerides (fats) into droplets?


Nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides for ________ in chemical digestion in the small intestine?


Dietary lipids are all absorbed by what?

Simple Diffusion

Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of what? Which are resynthesized to what? Then formed into protein-coated sperical masses called what?

Micelles; triglycerides; chylomicrons

Chylomicrons are taken up by the _____ of a _____.

Lacteal; villus

After Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal they enter what system?

Lymphatic system

From the Lymphatic system, chylomicrons then pass into what system?

Cardiovascular System

After passing through the Cardiovascular System, chylomicrons finally reach what?

Liver (or adipose tissue)

Subdivisions of the Large Intestine include;

Cecum; colon; rectum; anal canal

What hangs inferior to the cecum?


What is inflammation of the appendix called?


Gangrene or peritonitis are life-threatening conditions that are the result of a ruptured what?


What is divided into ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions?


Mechanical movements of the large intestine include what?

Haustral churning, peristalsis, mass peristalsis

The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial or enzymatic action?


Inflammation of the liver that can be caused by viruses, drugs, and chemicals, including alcohol, is what?


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