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Cell Theory

All organisms are composed of cells
Cells are the smallest working units of all living things
All cells come from preexistin cells through cell division

What is a Cell?

A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions


Do not have structures surrounded by membranes
Few internal structures
One-celled organisms: Bacteria


Contain organelles surrounded by membrane
Most living organisms

Cell Parts: Organelles

Organelles: organs for a cell

Cell membrane

Outer membrane of a cell that controls movement in and out of cells
Double layer

Cell wall: CELLulose

Found in plant / bacteria cells
Supports / protects cells

Inside of Cell

Directs cells activities
Contains DNA
Separated by cytoplasm by nuclear membrane

Nuclear Membrane

Surrounds nucleus
Made of two layers
Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus


In nucleus
Made of DNA
Contain instructions for traits and characteristics


In nucleus
Contains RNA to build proteins


Gel-like mixture
Surrounded by cell membrane
Contains heriditary material

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth types: lacks ribosomes
Rough types: ribosome ebbed on surface
Attached to / near cytoplasm


Each cell contains thousands
Make proteins / lipids
Found on cytoplasm and floating throughout the cell


Produces energy through chemical reactions - breaking down fats and carbohydrates
Controls level of water and other materials in cell
not attached to cytoplasm

Golgi Bodies

Protein packaging plant
Move material with cell
Move materials out of cell
Not attached to cytoplasm


Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats and carbohydrates
Transports undigested material to cell membrane
Cell breaks down if lysosomes explodes
Consumes mitochondria
Found in animal-cells because they need it more
One is found in plant cell


Membrane - bound sace for storage, digestion and waste removal
Contains water solution
Helps plants maintain shape


Usually found in plant cells
Contains green chlorophyll
Where photosynthesis occurs

Central Vacuole

Pulls water

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