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Chapter 14 Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations

Terms in this set (215)

Heat stroke is a dangerous accumulation of body heat, which triggers excessive sweating, but the sweat does not evaporate, so cooling cannot occur. This situation is more likely to happen in hot, humid weather. To prevent heat stroke, it is important to drink plenty of fluids before and during the activity and rest in the shade when tired. Heat stroke symptoms include muscle cramping as an early symptom, flushed skin, throbbing headache, rapid breathing and heart rate, and more. If heat stroke symptoms occur, stop exercising, get help, and cool down quickly. Heat stroke can be fatal.
Hypothermia refers to low body temperature. It can be as serious as heat stroke. It is more likely to occur when a slow runner participates in a long race on a cold or wet chilly day and is wearing inadequate clothing. The person begins to shiver and becomes apathetic. As body temperature continues to drop, shivering may stop, and disorientation, drowsiness, slurred speech, and change in behavior or appearance set in. The active body still sweats in cold weather, so fluids should be warm or at room temperature to prevent hypothermia.
Hyponatremia indicates a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood. If an athlete loses a lot of sweat, particularly when participating in an event lasting longer than 3 hours, a lot of sodium is lost and must be replaced or heat cramps will result. Other symptoms of hyponatremia include bloating from water retention, confusion, seizure, severe headache, and vomiting. Hyponatremia can also result when endurance athletes drink so much water during the activity that they overhydrate. The body's fluids become so diluted that sodium concentrations fall to very low and dangerous levels.