Only $35.99/year

Chapter 18 Diet and Health

Terms in this set (279)

Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

1. Prior to gaining 15 pounds over the last six months, Ellen was _____ which is associated with _______, an underlying cause of most other chronic diseases.

a. overweight; heart disease
b. obese; chronic inflammation
c. obese; heart disease
d. overweight; metabolic syndrome
e. obesity; cancer
Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

2. Which is a risk factor for chronic diseases based on Ellen's current diet and lifestyle?

a. High consumption of plant proteins
b. A diet high in vitamins and/or minerals
c. Low intake of fiber and phytochemicals
d. Low added sugar intake
e. Excessive alcohol intake
Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

4. Ellen's doctor also orders a lipid profile and reviews the results in conjunction with the results of her history and physical examination. Which of the following is considered to indicate high risk of heart disease?

a. Total blood cholesterol of 220 mg/dL
b. HDL cholesterol of 30 mg/dL
c. Triglycerides of 165 mg/dL
d. LDL cholesterol of 95 mg/dL
e. Blood pressure of 136/85
Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

5. To decrease her risk of cardiovascular disease, Ellen should:

a. Limit saturated fat to less than 15% of daily kcalories.
b. Limit cholesterol to less than 400 milligrams per day.
c. Limit sodium intake to less than 2500 milligrams per day.
d. Limit trans fats to less than 1% of daily kcalories.
e. Consume three alcoholic beverages per day if male, and two if female.
Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

6. If Ellen were to reduce her weight to a healthy level and maintain a BMI of between 18.5 and 24.9, how much of a blood pressure reduction would she likely achieve for each 10 kg she lost?

a. 2 mm Hg
b. 6 mm Hg
c. 8 mm Hg
d. 4 mm Hg
e. 10 mm Hg
Ellen is a 55-year-old woman with multiple medical problems, including chronic back pain. She is 66 inches tall and weighs 286 pounds. She takes medications for high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, both of which are currently under control. She also takes pain medications every day and has difficulty walking, although she occasionally attends a water exercise class at the local sports center. She states that she has been overweight most of her life and confesses that foods, especially sweet foods, are a comfort to her when she experiences physical or emotional pain. Her diet history reveals an intake of two or three cans of ginger ale or root beer each day. Her usual meals with her husband include meat or chicken (she does not like fish) and vegetables, such as corn or potatoes. She snacks on several types of frozen desserts between meals. She enjoys milk on occasion but admits that it is not a part of her regular diet. A recent visit to her doctor reveals a weight gain of 15 pounds over the past six months and an increase in her fasting blood glucose level into the "pre-diabetes" range. She has no family history of diabetes. Her doctor has recommended she lose weight and make lifestyle changes to prevent her from developing diabetes.

7. Ellen's doctor encourages her to reduce her risk of developing type 2 diabetes by making some lifestyle changes. All of the following diet and lifestyle changes associated with reducing risk of diabetes except:

a. Lose weight.
b. Snack on an apple with peanut butter instead of frozen desserts.
c. Stop smoking.
d. Increase physical activity.
e. Drink water in place of soda.
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

1. Sue is a 4-year-old girl who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when she was 1. Her parents have learned that spacing out Sue's carbohydrates throughout the day helps to keep her blood sugar levels stable. Each meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) provides roughly how many grams carbohydrate per meal?

a. 30 grams carbohydrate per meal
b. 15 grams carbohydrate per meal
c. 50 grams carbohydrate per meal
d. 20 grams carbohydrate per meal
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

2. The carbohydrate recommendation for people who have diabetes is the same as it is for people without diabetes: 45-65% of total calories should come from carbohydrate. What percent of calories in this menu come from carbohydrate?

a. 57% of calories from carbohydrate
b. 12% of calories from carbohydrate
c. 62% of calories from carbohydrate
d. 49% of calories from carbohydrate
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

4. One of Sue's mom's friends said she heard people with diabetes should not have fruit because it contains sugar. Sue's mom informed her that fruit is a very good carbohydrate source for people with diabetes because although it contains the natural fruit sugar fructose, it is also a good source of other nutrients and fiber. Fiber helps stabilize blood sugar. How does Sue's daily fiber intake compare to her goal?

a. She ate 82% of her recommended fiber
b. She ate 101% of her recommended fiber
c. She ate 93% of her recommended fiber
d. She ate 69% of her recommended fiber
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

6. Sue's parents are concerned because their daughter is somewhat picky about which foods she eats. They often worry about whether she is getting enough vitamins and if she might need a supplement. Which vitamin is Sue's diet deficient in and from which she might benefit from a supplement to help meet her needs?

a. Vitamin C
b. Vitamin D
c. Vitamin A
d. Vitamin B6
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

7. Last year Sue was admitted to the hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a severe condition that results in electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and the production of dangerous ketoacids. Since then Sue's parents carefully watch her fluid intake as dehydration may be a symptom of DKA. How many more cups of water per day does Sue need to meet her fluid needs? (Hint: 1 g water = 1 ml water and there are 237 mls in 1 cup of water.)

a. About 4 ½ more cups
b. About 5 ½ more cups
c. About 2 ½ more cups
d. About 1 ½ more cups
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

8. Whereas the majority of people with Type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, people with Type 1 diabetes tend to be normal weight or may be even be underweight. As she is growing, Sue's parents carefully watch her weight gain patterns and calorie intake to make sure Sue is progressing at the proper rate. How does Sue's daily caloric intake on this one day compare to her calorie goals?

a. She is eating twice as many calories as she needs
b. She is eating about half as many calories as she needs
c. She is eating only three-quarters the calories that she needs
d. She is eating about as many calories as she needs
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

9. As Sue ages, if she can keep her blood sugar well-controlled, she will have a lower risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Although she is young, maintaining a diet low in saturated and trans fat will further help to reduce heart disease risk. Which statement about the trans fat content of this one-day menu is correct?

a. She is eating 2 grams of trans fat less per day than she should
b. This is a trans fat-free diet
c. There is more trans fat than unsaturated fat in her diet
d. She is eating 5 more grams of trans fat per day than she should
In Diet & Wellness Plus you will create the below profile and add the foods below. You will then pull Reports and answer the questions.

Topic: Diabetes
Menu: One Day Menu for Diabetes Management
DWP Reports Used:
Intake vs. Goals
Source Analysis: Carbohydrate
Exchanges Spreadsheet
Profile for Sue Zhu:
Birth Date: Insert a birthday so that Sue is 36 months old when you deploy the assignment.
Gender: Female
Height: 3 ft, 4 inches
Weight: 34 lbs
Not Pregnant, Non-Smoker, Non Strict Vegetarian/Vegan
Activity Level: Active
Track Diet:
Sample Menu for Child with Type 1 Diabetes
Breakfast
Pancakes (1 item)
Peanut Butter, Smooth (2 teaspoons)
Juice, Orange (4 fluid ounces)
Morning Snack
Grapes, Red or Green (0.5 cups - Seedless)
Cheese, Mozzarella, Part Skim Milk (0.5 ounce)
Lunch
Bread, 100% Whole Wheat (1 slices - 3 ¾ in. x 5 in. x ½ in.)
Ham, Sliced, Prepackaged or Deli (1 slice - 4 ¼ in. squares)
Avocado, California (0.22 items fruit without skin)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)
Afternoon Snack
Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups)
Dinner
Soup, Chicken Noodle (0.75 cups)
Cornbread (0.5 pieces)
Broccoli, Chopped, Boiled, Drained (0.5 cups)
Milk, Low Fat, 1% (4 fluid ounces)

10. The exchange system is one approach to meal planning for people with diabetes. The exchange system works by grouping foods into lists or exchange groups with other foods of similar carbohydrate and calorie content. Which exchange group did Sue eat the greatest number of total exchanges from in this one day menu?

a. Fat
b. Lean Meat
c. Bread or Starch
d. Fruit