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Cold War Vocab ACADEC
Terms in this set (126)
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
Soviet leader from 1962 to 1984 who is most known internationally for actions such as his hard-line stance against the pro-democracy Prague Spring protesters in 1968 and well as overseeing Russia's long, costly, and futile war in Afghanistan.
Brezhnev's successor, 1982 and longtime chief of secret police. Andropov tried to invigorate the communist system but little came of his efforts. Worsening economic situation led to emergence of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985.
Leader of Russia in 1984 for one year, 1984 - 1985, 1984; Replaced Adropov; Died in 1985; Predecessor to Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
George Bush Sr.
41st President of the United States; presidency marked by the Persian Gulf War, economic downturn
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Succeeded Winston Churchill as the British PM. Participated in part of the Potsdam Conference.
Opposed Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became Prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957.
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe.
Czech playwright that called for the independence of Czechoslovakia by 1989; became the first President of Czechoslavakia and the first President of the Czech Republic in 1993
Marxist Leninist communist who hated stalin. Soviet forces never allowed to come in and liberate Yugoslavia. He creates his own communist authoritarian regime. Not under stalin's control.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out
This militant communist leader of Romania attempted to keep his power by force, but was defeated and sent to the Hague to be executed by demand of a military court
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
strong anti-communist. Brought to Korea by Douglas MacArthur and was implemented by U.S. as 1st South Korean president in the mid 20th century. Part of Korean Provisional Government (KPG) who lived in the U.S. for 40 years. Had alliance with Kim Songsu.
Park Chung Hee
was a Republic of Korea Army general and the dictator of South Korea (the Republic of Korea) from 1961 to 1979. He has been credited with the industrialization of the Republic of Korea through export-led growth. His rule was ended by his assassination in 1979.
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
largely on the initiative of then-Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967
a radical guerrilla group in Peru with ties to Communist China
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. They lost national elections in 1990.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan to help the Afghan communist government crush anticommunist Muslim guerrillas; anti communist guerrillas received support from US and GB; USSR withdrew→ communist party remained in power
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
1956, spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian people's republic and its soviet imposed policies. First major threat to soviet control since the USSR's forces drove out the Nazis at the end of the cold war.
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
August Coup, USSR
Name given to the 1991 crisis, in which Gorbachev was kidnapped by his political opponents as part of an abortive attempt to seize power. Accelerated the processes of national decay.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
the Soviet Union's plan to allow more political freedom in the 1980's--Gorbechev was the leader "Openness"
Churchill, FDR, Stalin. Planned invasion of France, Russian offensive to coincide. Stalin repeated promise to enter war with Japan after German loss. All 3 agreed to create United Nations after the War.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin. Stalin wanted buffer zone of people and countries. US and England wanted oil.
Stalin, Truman, Churchill (Atlee replacing Churchill); Met in the ruins of Berlin at the old Palace of the German royal family. Demanded unconditional surrender of axis powers.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.
The term for the attempted liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
in the Soviet Union, a system of forced labor camps in which millions of criminals and political prisoners were held under Stalin
Great Leap Forward
economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.
also known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution; launched by Mao in the late 1960's; aimed to combat the capitalist tendencies he believed had penetrated even the highest ranks of the communist party itself; involved new policies to bring health care and education to the countryside and reinvigorate earlier efforts at rural industrialization under local control
Five Year Plan, USSR
(1928-32), implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods.
a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government
This arms-control treaty signed by Bush and Gorbachev was the first genuine reduction of the nuclear warheads of the Cold War
Star Wars, Satellites
A system armed with an array of space-based X-ray lasers would detect and deflect any nukes headed toward the United States.
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Soviet secret police agency charged with domestic and foreign intelligence
British intelligence agency which supplies the British Government with foreign intelligence.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers
East German secret police
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
aircraft flown by the United States for intelligence gathering, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Perhaps the most famous spy plane ever built, the U-2, also known as the Dragon Lady, has been in service since 1956.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
1968, U.S.; is first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon; makes 10 orbits on 6-day mission
1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became first people to walk on the moon
second-largest and sixth planet from the Sun; has a complex ring system, at least 31 moons, and a thick atmosphere made mostly of hydrogen and helium
1st person to walk on the moon; U.S. Apollo 11; July, 1969; his famous words - "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space (1934-1968)
dangerous force of unfairness and fear that a democratic society can unleash.
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
American couple executed for passing atomic secrets to Soviet agents
the nickname was given to a group of Cambridge-educated spies who all were eventually revealed to have been part of a Soviet intelligence operation — that is, they were spying for the Russians and passing them sensitive information for many years.
the hydrogen bomb - a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the Atomic bomb
United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (1904-1967)
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
International Monetary Fund//a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Chinese communist isolationism penetrated by Richard Nixon in the 1970s.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Individuals who were prevented from working in the film industry because of their suspected involvement with Communist interests.
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
communist party in Cambodia that imposed a reign of terror on Cambodian citizens
Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's
Communist political group in Laos; fought against Anti-Communist Forces during Vietnam War
Mobutu Sese Seko
He overthrew Lumumba, the leader of the Congo, and turned him over to his enemy. He renamed the country Zaire, and ruled for 32 years. He used a combination of force, one party rule, and gifts to supporters to run his country.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
The US theory that stated, if one country would fall to Communism then they all would.
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
Dien Bien Phu
The place that the final battle took place that forced the French out of Vietnam
Korean port from which American forces launched a successful attack against the North Korean army during the Korean War
The Vietnamese New Year celebration, during which the communists launched a heavy offensive against the U.S. in 1968
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
George C. Marshall
The head of allied forces in World War II; proposed economic aid to to rebuild Western Europe -> Marshall Plan
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
first US space station
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Werner Von Braun
German scientist who got our rocket program going
an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
were two series of United States uncrewed space missions for lunar and planetary exploration
consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. Each spacecraft was composed of two main parts: an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars from orbit, and a lander designed to study the planet from the surface.
a program of rocket-powered flights undertaken by US between 1961 and 1963 with the goal of putting a man in orbit around the earth
Space Shuttle Columbia
2003: breaks up in atmosphere over Texas on re-entry, killing entire crew
Changes to space protocol are enacted to increase safety in response to the Columbia
2 year hiatus follows for Space Shuttle Discovery
Soviet aerospace engineer and scientist who was a pioneer of spacecraft design and rocketry. Mikhail Tikhonravov was born in Vladimir, Russia. Attended the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy from 1922 to 1925, where he was exposed to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's ideas of spaceflight.
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
treaty between the US and the Soviet Union to limit the number of nuclear warheads and missiles.
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Short termed President of Guatemala...Implemented a Land Reform Policy which mainly targeted the United Fruit Company by taking "uncultivated land"...US saw him as a communist threat...though to have ties with the Soviet Union...CIA Launches coup in 1954 to eject him from Presidency
Debate between Nixon and Khrushechev. The two men discussed the merits of each of their respective economic systems, capitalism and communism. The debate took place during an escalation of the Cold War, beginning with the launch of Sputnik in 1957, through the U-2 Crisis in 1960. Most Americans believed Nixon won the debate.
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
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