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AP Psychology Unit 2 Flashcards
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Gravity
Unit 2 for Psychology Flashcards by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (40)
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion. Rather it examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
operational definition
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
case study
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
sampling bias
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
population
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two variables
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variables.
experimental group
in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group
in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
validity
the extent to which a test or experiment measures of predicts what it is supposed to do.
descriptive statistics
numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measure of variation.
histogram
a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
skewed distribution
a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how scores vary around the mean score
normal curve (normal distribution)
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes
inferential statistics
numerical data that allow on to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
debriefing
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
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