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103 terms

South Asia

MADE WITH LAUREN R.
STUDY
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Indus Valley
Pakistan is currently the area of this civilization; Thar Desert forms eastern border; early culture hearth
Himalayas
about 50 million years ago, the Indian plate and Eurasian plate collided, and the collision zone forced upward to become this; convergent boundary
landforms
the distribution of _____ is: high mountains in North, Plateau in the South, and alluvial plans in between Indo-Gangetic Plain
Alluvial plains
created by water deposits
Archipelago
island group
Atoll
islands that are low-lying tops of submerged volcanoes
Ganges River
provides water for drinking, farming, and transportation; also sacred river that brings life to people
Indo-Gangetic Plain
this plain is so fertile because of its three rivers and alluvial plains; 2nd largest population cluster
climate
wetter and cooler from west to east
monsoons
seasonal shift in winds; flooding and drought
cyclone
violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; most extreme weather pattern of South Asia
storm surges
high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas
rohini
From April to May, hottest and driest time of the year
Aryans
Invade from Persia; bring language and Hinduism
1947
India independence
Partition
The separation of India into West Pakistan, East Pakistan, and India was known as the _______ of India
Islamabad
capital of Pakistan was moved from Karachi to this city to get more people to Kashmir
Britain
(In early 1800s-1947) this country unified India by creating a single capital, railroad, lingua franca, an educated ruling class, and establishing ports
Salt March
In 1931, Gandhi protested British policy by marching to the Arabian Sea to make salt; it was illegal for Indians to grow or sell salt
Asssassinated
Gandhi was _____ while on his way to daily prayer in 1948
Nonviolent resistance
this is the name of the theory that protests should not use violence to achieve goals
Hindi
official language of India
Dravidian
spoken in Southern India
English
lingua franca of South Asia; language of government and educated; taught in schools
Hinduism
mainly in India; polytheistic, no single founder
Samsara
belief, based on your karma, you will be reborn in a next life; also known as reincarnation
Karma
All actions have future consequences—rewards or punishments in this life or the next
Dharma
duties to families and caste
Siddhartha Gautama
The founder of Buddhism; born in Nepal
Buddhism
founded in India; no supreme being; most followers in Sri Lanka
Moksha
The final release from material existence
Brahma
The creator/main god of Hinduism
Vishnu
The preserver god that is in charge of human fate of Hinduism
Shiva
The destroyer god of Hinduism
Ganesha
Shiva's son that removes obstacles; has elephant head; a god of Hinduism
Urdu
official language of Pakistan
Brahmin
highest caste; priestly
Kshatriyas
second highest caste; nobles and warriors; modern day: doctors, lawyers, and CEOs
Vaishyas
middle caste; merchants and landowners
Shudras
low caste; servants, artisans, and laborers
Dalits
also known as untouchables and harijan; lowest caste and poorest
Subsistence
this kind of farming is also known as traditional farming; predominates all others; grow only enough to feed family
microcredit
Makes small loans available to poor entrepreneurs so they can start their own small businesses
outsource
businesses do this because India has low wages, Indians speak English, 12 hour time difference, highest number of college graduates, and there is plenty of high tech infrastructure
Green Revolution
Genetically engineered crops designed to grow faster and yield more product
small farmers
these people have lost land and went into debt and don't have technology because can't afford water, electricity, etc. because of green revolution; also, women are doing all of the hard work
democracy
India is the world's largest _______
India
this country's population hit 1 billion in 2000 and will soon pass China
birth
these are the reasons India's ____ rate is high: many children common to South Asian culture; women marry at eighteen or younger; children make money; security in old age when children are present; high infant mortality rate
Land reform
A more balanced distribution of land among farmers
Sri Lanka
fighting in this country between Sinhalese and Tamils
Tamils
minority group of Sri Lanka seeking independence
Sinhalese
government of Sri Lanka are this group
global warming
Maldives have major concerns about this
labor
In Bangalore, ______ is highly skilled, can speak English, and costs 1/10 the price
squatter
these kinds of settlements make up 1/3 of population; they also cause bad economy, bad air quality, and government can't get people out
digital divide
Gap between people who can and can't afford technology
US
South Asia is half the size of this country
subcontinent
South Asia is called this; large landmass that is smaller than a continent
estuary
an arm of the sea at the lower end of a river
summer
season of monsoon with flooding
winter
season of monsoon with drought
Bangladesh
prone to flooding as a result of cyclones
convectional
summer monsoons result in this kind of precipitation
orographic
this kind of precipitation occurs during the summer monsoon in the Himalayas
low
during summer monsoons, hot air rises and creates this kind of pressure
high
during the winter monsoon, air sinks, creating this kind of pressure
Mohandas Gandhi
Used a nonviolent resistance program for Indian independence
Pakistan
Muslim country; location of Indus Valley Civilization; official language is Urdu; ally to US
Nepal
landlocked and poor; mountains; Hindu; main income from tourism
Bhutan
Buddhist; landlocked and isolated; main income from tourism
Bangladesh
Muslim; formerly East Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Buddhist; formerly known as Ceylon; makes tea; tension between Sinhalese and Tamil
Maldives
Sunni Muslim; made of 2000 coral islands; worries of global warming and flooding; mainly makes money off tourism
Puja
daily worship
White Revolution
Green revolution caused this revolution; as a result of sudden influx of money, people have been able to purchase water buffalo and other milk-producing animals
Ceylon
Sri Lanka was formerly known as this
tourism
this has been a mixed blessing for Nepal because visitors have destroyed much of land; Mostly in Nepal and Bhutan
sherpa
People from the high Himalayas that are the traditional mountain guides of the Everest region
Kashmir
The land that is claimed by India and Pakistan; India has it; ¾ of the population is Muslim
Islam
religion of Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Maldives; this religion was spread in 900 AD
Sikhism
this religion is a mix of Hinduism and Islam
child labor
Very common for children to work in labor intensive industries such as match factories
Mumbai
India's most prosperous city and leading commercial center of metals, chemicals, and electronics
Bangalore
India's high-tech center; home of hundreds of computer software companies
glocalization
The creation of products or services intended for the global market, but customized to suit the local culture
telecommunications
developments in this has helped developed culture
economic
these three things have limited Bangalore's _______ growth: Infrastructure; traffic congestion; air transportation (bad, small air ports); electricity problems
cow
In India, killing or harming this animal is prohibited
yoga
Used to heighten awareness during meditation
shrine
expressions of devotion in Hinduism
temple
places of worship in Hinduism
doubling
rapid population growth in India let to a 36 year _____ time
demographic momentum
In Stage 3 of the demographic transition model but still has a high _______ _________
education
this is the key to control population growth because it leads to better jobs and better lives for women, as well as a lower infant mortality rate
Delhi
the push factors that lead people to this city are: Work, on 2 rivers, population is 13-14 million
urban
in this setting, the caste system is not as important
migration
families still influence after this because money still needs to be sent back, they stay connected, must visit villages in harvest season
family
the _____ has problems with migration because of separation; father leaves family; moms have to keep up education; oldest boy has to take place of father
nuclear
both India and Pakistan have these kinds of weapons to fight over Kashmir
purdah
seclusion of women in Muslim countries
Varanasi
holiest site of Hinduism
river deltas
these are frequent in Bangladesh; have good soil and are subjected to lots of floods