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judicial restraint approach
the view that judges should decide cases strictly on the basis of the language of the laws and the Constitution
the view that judges should discern the general principles underlying laws or the constitution and apply them to modern circumstances
Courts created by Congress for specialized purposes whose judges do not enjoy the protections of Article III of the constitution
a rule that allows a plaintiff to recover costs from the defendant if the plaintiff wins
the right of a state to be free from lawsuit unless it gives permission to the suit. Under the 11th Amendment, all states are considered sovereign
class action suit
a case brought by someone to help him or her and all others who are similarly situated
A written statement by an attorney that summarizes a case and the laws and rulings that support it.
A signed opinion in which one or more of the justices disagree with the majority view.
an issue the Supreme Court will allow the executive and legislative branches decide
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