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Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; proclaimed emperor of Mexico
Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
jose de san martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
portuguese monarch who established seat of government in brazil from 1808-1820 as a result of napoleonic invasion of iberian peninsula; made brazil seat of empire with capital at rio de janeiro.
son and successor of Joao VI in brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor
Andres Santa Cruz
Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
dictator of Mexico; led attack on Alamo in 1836; defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto; participated in the Mexican War sold the "Gadsden Purchase" to U.S.; Exiled from Mexico
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God); United States belief in 19th century
treaty of guadalup-hidalgo
This ended the Mexican war by giving the U.S half of Mexico; signed in 1848
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico; defeated French emperor
Maximilian von Habsburg
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.
replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento
Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.
One of Juarez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government
Spanish American War
War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines
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