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Uses World Civilizations book.

Toussaint L'Overture

Led Haiti slave rebellion

Mask of Ferdinand

Latin American movements that allegedly supported the Bourbon monarch

Miguel de Hidalgo

Mexican priest who started revolution among Native Americans and mestizos

Augustin Iturbide

Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; proclaimed emperor of Mexico

Simon Bolivar

Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia

Gran Colombia

Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.

jose de san martin

South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru

Joao VI

portuguese monarch who established seat of government in brazil from 1808-1820 as a result of napoleonic invasion of iberian peninsula; made brazil seat of empire with capital at rio de janeiro.

Pedro I

son and successor of Joao VI in brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor

Jose Rodriguez de Francia

First leader of Paraguay following its independence from Spain; dictator

Andres Santa Cruz

Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.


independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.


Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.


wanted a two-tiered government

monroe doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

santa anna

dictator of Mexico; led attack on Alamo in 1836; defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto; participated in the Mexican War sold the "Gadsden Purchase" to U.S.; Exiled from Mexico

manifest destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God); United States belief in 19th century

treaty of guadalup-hidalgo

This ended the Mexican war by giving the U.S half of Mexico; signed in 1848

benito juarez

Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico; defeated French emperor

Maximilian von Habsburg

Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.

Argentine Republic

replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.

Domingo F. Sarmiento

Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.

modernization theory

The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.

dependency theory

The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.

Porfirio Diaz

One of Juarez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government

Spanish American War

War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines

Panama Canal

An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.

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