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Peds week 2
Terms in this set (41)
Types of infectious disorders of the neurologic system
a physically demonstrable symptoms of meningitis
- severe neck stiffness causes a patient's hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed
physically demonstrable symptom of meningitis
- severe stiffness of the hamstrings causes an inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees
Risk factors of reye syndrome
•A prodromal viral illness, such as chickenpox, croup, flu, or an upper respiratory infection
•Ingestion of salicylate-containing products within 3 weeks of the start of the viral illness
S/S of Reye Syndrome
•Severe and continual vomiting
•Changes in mental status
Risk factors of epilepsy
•Family history of seizures or epilepsy
•Any complications during the prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal periods
•Changes in developmental status or delays in developmental milestones
•Any recent illness, fever, trauma, or toxin exposure
involves sudden lapse in consciousness and staring blankly into space, episodes last less than 15 seconds.
Common causes of head trauma in children
•Motor vehicle accidents
•Pedestrian and bicycle accidents
Causes of Nonaccidental Head Trauma
•Violent shaking: shaken baby syndrome (SBS)
•Blows to the head
•Intentional cranial impacts against the wall, furniture, or the floor
Inspection and observation of a child with neurologic disorder
•Level of consciousness (LOC)
•Head, face, and neck
•Cranial nerve function
•Increased intracranial pressure (ICP)
`Five states of consciousness
the child is awake and alert; is oriented to time, place, and person; and exhibits age-appropriate behaviors.
disorientation exists; the child may be alert but responds inappropriately to questions.
the child has limited responses to the environment and falls asleep unless stimulation is provided.
the child only responds to vigorous stimulation
the child cannot be aroused, even with painful stimuli
frequent vital signs
•Brain stem injury
promoting child and family teaching
•Assess child's and family's willingness to learn.
•Provide family with time to adjust to diagnosis.
•Teach in short sessions.
•Gear teaching to a level of understanding of the child and family.
•Provide reinforcement and rewards.
•Use multiple modes of learning involving many senses.
Managed Disturbed Sensory Perception
•Assess for changes in sensory perception.
•Monitor child for risk of injury secondary to changes in sensory perception.
•Notify physician or nurse practitioner of changes in sensory perception.
•Assist child to learn to use adaptive methods to live with permanent changes in sensory perception (i.e., use of eyeglasses) and maximize the use of intact senses.
•Provide familiar sounds (voices, music).
Types of Infectious Disease of the Eye
•Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
s/s of conjunctivitis
•Itching of the eyes (usually with allergic conjunctivitis)
Risk factors for developing visual impairment
•Family history of eye disease
•African American heritage
•Previous serious eye injury
•Chronic corticosteroid use
S/S of Visual Impairment at any age
dull, vacant stare
S/S of visual impairment in infants
does not "fix and follow," does not make eye contact, is unaffected by bright light, does not imitate facial expression
S/S of visual impairment in toddlers
Toddler and older child: rubs, shuts, and covers eyes; squints and blinks frequently; holds objects close or sits close to television; bumps into objects; displays head tilt or forward thrust
Acuity between 20/60 and 20/200 in the better eye on examination, and "legal blindness" is a term used to refer to vision of less than 20/200 or peripheral vision less than 20 degrees
Levels of Hearing Loss
normal, mild, moderate, severe, profound
Mild hearing loss
Moderate hearing loss
Severe hearing loss
Profound learning loss
greater than 80 dB
Types of delayed-onset hearing loss
Conductive hearing loss
Results when transmission of sound through the middle ear is disrupted, as in the case of OME
Sensorineural hearing loss
Caused by damage to the hair cells in the cochlea or along the auditory pathway
Mixed Hearing Loss
Occurs when the cause may be attributed to both conductive and sensorineural problem
OME who are at risk for speech, language, or learning problems may be referred for evaluation of hearing earlier than a child with OME who is not at risk
Health History of present illness
•Onset and progression
•Eye or ear pain
•Early interventions to minimize psychosocial impact of sensory deficits
Acute Infectious disorders
•Common cold, sinusitis
•Pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and laryngitis
•Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
•Pneumonia and bronchitis
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