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Process in which numerous new species evolve to fill vacant and new ecological niches in changed environments, usually after a mass extinction or mass depletion. Typically, this takes millions of years.
Wild species tamed or genetically altered by crossbreeding for use by humans for food (cattle, sheep, and food crops), pets (dogs and cats), or enjoyment (animals in zoos and plants in gardens).
early successional plant species
Plant species found in the early stages of succession that (1) grow close to the ground, (2) can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions, and (3) have short lives.
Wild species with so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct in all or most of its natural range.
Species that is found in only one area. Such species are especially vulnerable to extinction.
Generally fixed route along which waterfowl migrate from one area to another at certain seasons of the year.
Type of wild animal that people hunt or fish for, for sport and recreation and sometimes for food.
Breakup of a habitat into smaller pieces, usually as a result of human activities.
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its usefulness to us.
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to us.
late successional plant species
Mostly trees that can tolerate shade and form a fairly stable complex forest community.
midsuccessional plant species
Grasses and low shrubs that are less hardy than early successional plant species.
minimum dynamic area (MDA)
Minimum area of suitable habitat needed to maintain the minimum viable population. See minimum viable population.
minimum viable population (MVP)
Estimate of the smallest number of individuals necessary to ensure the survival of a population in a region for a specified time period, typically ranging from decades to 100 years.
Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans.
population viability analysis (PVA)
Use of mathematical models to estimate a population's risk of extinction.
Species that (1) has naturally small numbers of individuals, often because of limited geographic ranges or low population densities, or (2) has been locally depleted by human activities.
Wild species that is still abundant in its natural range but likely to become endangered because of a decline in numbers.
All free, undomesticated species. Sometimes the term is used to describe only free, undomesticated animal species.
Manipulation of populations of wild species (especially game species) and their habitats for (1) human benefit, (2) the welfare of other species, and (3) the preservation of threatened and endangered wildlife species.
So few members remain that the species cannot maintain its ecological role, or members only survive in captivity.
Goal: to protect species from premature extinction.
Strategies: identify endangered species; protect critical habitats.
Tactics: legally protecting endangered species; propagating endangered species in captivity; reintroducing species back into suitable habitats.
Goal: to protect populations of species in their natural habitats.
Strategy: preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems.
Tactics: protecting habitat areas through private purchase or government action; eliminating or reducing populations of nonnative species from protected areas; managing protected areas to sustain native species; and restoring degraded ecosystems.
CITES treaty of 1975
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Lists (1) some 900 species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products because they are in danger of extinction and (2) restricts international trade of 29,000 other species because they are at risk of being threatened.
Lacey Act of 1900
prohibits transporting live/dead animals or their parts across state borders without a federal permit.
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