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Biomolecules

Mosely 9th grade Pre-AP
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nucleic acid
a macromolecule that carries genetic information or forms structure within cells
nucleotide
in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenus base
DNA
the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
RNA
a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
catalyze
substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction
substrate
a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
active site
the site on an enzyme that attatches to a substrate
product
newly formed substrates
amylase
an enzyme that breaks down starches into sugars
catalase
an enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
polymerase
an enzyme that writes DNA strand and prevents errors in genetic code
collagen
makes things firmer (like jello)
Benedict's Reagent
a chemical solution used to detect the presence of glucose and other reducing sugars
Buiret Reagent
tests for the presence of proteins
Iodine Reagent
dissolving iodine in water in the presence of potassium iodide
How do enzymes work
they break down
Proteins ex.
ex. meats, animal products, legumes, grains, and nuts
Lipids ex.
ex. oil, waxes, and vitamins
Carbohydrates ex.
sugar, starch, and breatds
nucleic acid ex.
DNA and RNA
organic compound
a biomolecule that is produced by a living organism
macromolecule
a large molecule made of many smaller molecules
enzyme
proteins that catalyze chemical reactions
metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
nutrients
a substance that provides nourishment need for life processes
amino acids
the building blocks of proteins
digestion
the breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used for energy
glucose
sugar
lipids
a broad group of molecules which include fats, waxes, several vitamins
carbohydrates
a molecule that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipids
a broad group of molecules that store energy, making the structure of cell membranes and cellular signalling
proteins
large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids
nucleic acids
a macromolecule that carries genetic information or form structures within cells
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
3 elements that make up all carbohydrates
starches
the carbohydrate plants use this to store extra sugar
cellular respiration
sugar is broken down and turned into ATP that gives cells the energy they need
blood sugar
condition people suffer from that by eating breads, potatoes, and other starches
What is blood sugar
level drops or goes increasingly high
nucleic acid
amino acids joined together to form a macromolecule
proteins
enzymes hormones and antibodies are part of which biomolecule
lipid bilayer other name
lipid membranes
lipid bilayer
help maintain homeostasis
oxygen and hydrogen
lipids are a compound made up of
triglycerides
the lipid most commonly consumed
saturated
containing the maximum amount of solute capable of being dissolved
monounsaturated
lack hydrogen bond on the carbon chain
polyunsaturated
double bonds unsaturated by hydrogen atoms
adipose tissue
triglycerides are stored in......