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Leukemia NCLEX questions
Terms in this set (38)
"In formulating a nursing diagnosis of risk for infection for a client with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), nursing measures should include: (Select all that apply.)
"A. Maintaining a clean technique for all invasive procedures.
B. Placing the client in protective isolation.
C. Limiting visitors who have colds and infections.
D. Ensuring meticulous handwashing by all persons coming in contact with the client."
"Correct Answers: B, C, D
Rationale: Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a proliferation and accumulation of small, abnormal mature lymphocytes in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and body tissues. Infections and fever are frequent complications of CLL."
"The client diagnosed with leukemia has central nervous system involvement. Whichinstructions should the nurse teach?
"1.Sleep with the head of the bed elevated to prevent increased intracranial pressure.
2.Take an analgesic medication for pain only when the pain becomes severe.
3.Explain that radiation therapy to the head may result in permanent hair loss.
4.Discuss end-of-life decisions prior to cognitive deterioration"
1.Sleeping with the head of the bed elevatedmight relieve some intracranial pressure, but it will not prevent intracranial pressure from occurring.2.Analgesic medications for clients with cancer are given on a scheduled basis with a fast-acting analgesic administered PRN for break-through pain.3.Radiation therapy to the head and scalp area is the treatment of choice for central nervous system involvement of any cancer. If the radiation therapy destroys the hair follicle, the hair will not grow back.4.Cognitive deterioration does not usually occur"
The nurse analyzes the laboratory values of a child with leukemia who is receiving chemotherapy . The nurse notes that the platelet count is 20,000/ul. Based on the laboratry result, which intervention will the nurse document in the plan of care?
1 Mointor closely for signs of infection 2. Mointor the temperature every 4hours 3. Initate prptective isolation precautions 4. Use soft small toothbrush for mouth care
Correct Ans 4 If a child is severely thrombocytopenic and has a platelet count less than 20,000/ul, bleeding precautions need to be initated because of increased risk of bleeding or hemorrhage. Options 1,2,3 are related to the prevention of infection rather than bleeding
"A client with acute leukemia is admitted to the oncology unit. Which
of the following would be most important for the nurse to inquire?
"a. ""Have you noticed a change in sleeping habits recently?""
b. ""Have you had a respiratory infection in the last 6 months?""
c. ""Have you lost weight recently?""
d. ""Have you noticed changes in your alertness?"""
Answer B is correct. The client with leukemia is at risk for infection and has often had recurrent respiratory infections during the previous 6 months. Insomnolence, weight loss, and a decrease in alertness also occur in leukemia, but bleeding tendencies and infections are the primary clinical manifestations; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
"What nursing diagnosis is seen with acute lymphocytic leukemia and thromocytopenia?
"A. potential for injury
B. self-care deficit
C. potential for self harm
D. alteration in comfort"
"Answer: A potential for injury
Low platelet increases risk of bleeding from even minor injuries. Safety measures: shave with an electric razor, use soft tooth brush, avoid SQ or IM meds and invasive procedures (urinary drainage catheter or a nasogastric tube), side-rails up, remove sharp objects, frequently assess for signs of bleeding, bruising, hemorrhage. "
"When caring for a client with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia, the nurse should plan to:
"a.Discourage the use of stool softeners
b.Assess temperature readings every six hours
c.Avoid invasive procedures
d.Encourage the use of a hard, brittle toothbrush
Thrombocytopenia is a deficiency of platelets, and leaves the patient more prone to hemmorrhage. For this reason, avoiding invasive procedures will limit the risk of hemorrhage. Stool softeners should be encouraged, while hard brittle toothbrushes should be avoided. Temperature is not the most important vital to track in this patient"
"Which statement is correct about the rate of cell growth in relation to chemotherapy?
"1. Faster growing cells are less susceptible to chemotherapy.
2. Nondividing cells are more susceptible to chemotherapy.
3. Faster growing cells are more susceptible to chemotherapy.
4. Slower growing cells are more susceptible to chemotherapy."
The faster the cell grows, the more susceptible it is to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Slow-growing and nondividing cells are less susceptible to chemotherapy. Repeated cycles of chemotherapy are used to destroy nondividing cells as the begin active cell division."
"The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Which assess-ment data warrant immediate intervention?
1.T 99, P 102, R 22, and BP 132/68.
2.Hyperplasia of the gums.
3.Weakness and fatigue.
4.Pain in the left upper quadrant."
1.These vital signs are not alarming. The vitalsigns are slightly elevated and indicate moni-toring at intervals, but they do not indicate animmediate need.
2.Hyperplasia of the gums is a symptom of myeloid leukemia, but it is not an emergency.
3.Weakness and fatigue are symptoms of thedisease and are expected.
4.Pain is expected, but it is a priority, andpain control measures should be imple-mented."
"Which medication is contraindicated for a client diagnosed with leukemia?
1. Bactrim, a sulfa antibiotic
2. Morphine, a narcotic analgesic
3. Epogen, a biologic response modifier
4. Gleevec, a genetic blocking agent"
1. Because of the ineffective or nonexistent WBCs characteristic of leukemia, the body cannot fight infections, and antibiotics are given to treat infections.
2. Leukemic infiltrations into the organs or the CNS cause pain. Morphine is the drug of choice for most clients with cancer.
3. Epogen is a biologic response modifier that stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs. The bone marrow is the area of malignancy in leukemia. Stimulating the bone marrow would be generally ineffective for the desired results and would have the potential to stimulate malignant growth.
4. Gleevec is a drug that specifically works in leukemic cells to block the expression of the BCR-ABL protein, preventing the cells from growing and dividing."
"A 68-year-old woman is diagnosed with thrombocytopenia due to acute lymphocytic leukemia. She is admitted to the hospital for treatment. The nurse should assign the patient:
"A. To a private room so she will not infect other patients and healthcare workers
B. To a private room so she will not be infected by other patients and healthcare workers
C. To a semiprivate room so she will have stimulation during her hospitalization
D. To a semiprivate room so she will have the opportunity to express her feelings about her illness"
"Correct Answer: B
A. To a private room so she will not infect other patients and health care workers — poses little or no threat
B. To a private room so she will not be infected by other patients and health care workers — CORRECT: protects patient from exogenous bacteria, risk for developing infection from others due to depressed WBC count, alters ability to fight infection
C. To a semiprivate room so she will have stimulation during her hospitalization — should be placed in a room alone
D. To a semiprivate room so she will have the opportunity to express her feelings about her illness — ensure that patient is provided with opportunities to express feelings about illness"
"A 33-year-old male is being evaluated for possible acute leukemia. Which of the following would the nurse inquire about as a part of the assessment?
"a. The client collects stamps as a hobby.
b. The client recently lost his job as a postal worker.
c. The client had radiation for treatment of Hodgkin's disease as a teenager.
d. The client's brother had leukemia as a child."
Answer C is correct. Radiation treatment for other types of cancer can result in leukemia. Some hobbies and occupations involving chemicals are linked to leukemia, but not the ones in these answers; therefore, answers A and B are incorrect. Answer D is incorrect because the incidence of leukemia is higher in twins than in siblings.
"A child with leukemia is complaining of nausea. A nurse suspects that the nausea is related to the chemotherapy regimen. The nurse, concerned about the child's nutritional status, most appropriately would offer which of the following during this episode of nausea?
"1. Cool, clear liquids
2. Low protein foods
3. Low-calorie foods
4. The child's favorite food"
With nausea, cool and clear liquids are better tolerated. Do not offer foods when the child is nauseated so he doesn't associate if with being sick. Support nutrition with oral supplements and foods high in proteins and calories"
"The nurse is caring for a 59-year-old woman who had surgery 1 day ago for removal of a suspected malignant abdominal mass. The patient is awaiting the pathology report. She is tearful and says that she is scared to die. The most effective nursing intervention at this point is to use this opportunity to:
"a. Motivate change in unhealthy lifestyles.
b. Educate her about the seven warning signs of cancer.
c. Instruct her about healthy stress relief and coping practices.
d. Allow her to communicate about the meaning of this experience."
"Correct answer: D
Rationale: While the patient is waiting for diagnostic study results, the nurse should be available to actively listen to the patient's concerns and should be skilled in techniques that can engage the patient and the family members or significant others in a discussion about their cancer-related fears."
Which of the following laboratory values could indicate that a child has leukemia?
"1. WBCs 32,000/mm3
2. Platelets 300,000/mm3
3. Hemoglobin 15g/dL
4. Blood pH of 7.35"
1. YES! - A normal WBC count is approximately 4.5 mm3 - 11.0 mm3. In leukemia a high WBC count is diagnostic and is usually confirmed by a blood smear.
2-4. None of these indicate leukemia,"
The nurse is caring for a patient suffering from anorexia secondary to chemotherapy. Which of the following strategies would be most appropriate for the nurse to use to increase the patient's nutritional intake?
"A. Increase intake of liquids at mealtime to stimulate the appetite.
B. Serve three large meals per day plus snacks between each meal.
C. Avoid the use of liquid protein supplements to encourage eating at mealtime.
D. Add items such as skim milk powder, cheese, honey, or peanut butter to selected foods."
"Correct Answer: D
The nurse can increase the nutritional density of foods by adding items high in protein and/or calories (such as peanut butter, skim milk powder, cheese, honey, or brown sugar) to the foods that a patient will eat.
Other Rationales: Increasing liquids at meals can cause a patient to feel full faster, leading to eating fewer calories.
Eating three large meals isn't possible for a patient on chemotherapy due to the decreased taste sensation.
Liquid protein supplements should when needed but they lead to less eating during mealtimes due to feeling of satiation."
A client has developed oral mucositis as a result of radiation to the head and neck. The nurse shouls teach the client to incorporate which of the following measures in his or her daily home care routine?
a) oral hygiene should be performed in the morning and evening
b) high-protein foods, such as peanut butter, should be incorporated in the diet
c) a glass of wine per day will not pose any further harm to the oral cavity
d) a combination of a weak saline and water solution should be used to rinse the mouth before and after each meal"
Oral mucositis (irritation, inflammation, and/or ulceration of the mucosa) commonly occurs in clients receiving radiation to the head and neck. Measures need to be taken to soothe the mucosa as well as provide effective cleansing of the oral cavity. A combination of a weak saline and water solution is an effective cleansing agent."
"The nurse and the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) are caring for clients in a bone marrow transplantation unit. Which nursing task should the nurse delegate?
"A. Take the hourly vital signs on a client receiving blood transfusions.
B. Monitor the infusion of antineoplastic medications.
C. Transcribe the HCP's orders onto the Medication Administration Record.
D. Determine the client's reponse to the therapy."
A. After the first 15 minutes during which the client tolerates the blood transfusion, it is appropriate to ask the UAP to take the vital signs as long as the UAP has been given specific parameters for the vital signs. Any vital sign outside the normal parameters must have an intervention by the nurse.
B. Antineoplastic medication infusions must be monitored by a chemotherapy-certified, competent nurse.
C. This is the responsibility of the word secretary or the nurse, not the unlicensed personnel.
D. This represents the evaluation portion of the nursing process and cannot be delegated."
"The most common signs and symptoms of leukemia related to bone marrow involvement are which of the following?
"A. Petechiae, fever, fatigue
B. Headache, papilledema, irritability
C. Muscle wasting, weight loss, fatigue
D. Decreased intracranial pressure, psychosis, confusion"
"Answer A is Correct.
Signs of infiltration of the bone marrow are petechiae from lowered platelet count, fever related to infection from the depressed number of effective leukocytes, and fatigue from the anemia."
"A client, diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is admitted to the hospital for treatment of hemolytic anemia. Which of the following measures, if incorporated into the nursing care plan, would best address the patient's needs?
"1. Encourage activities with other patients in the day room.
2. Isolate him from visitors and patients to avoid infection.
3. Provide a diet high in Vitamin C
4. Provide a quiet environment to promote adequate rest."
1. does not meet need for rest
2. no info given about WBC or reverse isolation, on reverse isolation if neutrophil count is less than 500/mm3
3. needed for wound healing and resistance to infection, not best choice
4. primary problem activity intolerance due to fatigue. Correct"
"A client diagnosed with leukemia is being admitted for an induction course of chemotherapy. Which laboratory values indicate a diagnosis of leukemia?
1. A left shift in the white blood cell count differential.
2. A large number of WBCs that decrease after the administration of antibiotics.
3. An abnormally low hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level.
4. Red blood cells that are larger than normal."
"Correct answer is 1.
1. A left shift indicates immature white blood cells are being produced and released into the circulating blood volume. This should be investigated for the malignant process of leukemia."
A pediatric nurse clinician is discussing the pathophysiology related to childhood leukemia with a class of nursing students. Which statement made by a nursing student indicates a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease? "
1. Normal bone marrow is replaced by blast cells
2. Red blood cell production is affected
3. the platelet count is decreased
4. the presence of a reed-sternberg cell is found on biopsy"
4. Reed-sternberg Cell is found in Hodgkins
Which of the following findings yields a poor prognosis for a pediatric patient with leukemia? "
1) Presence of a mediastinal mass
2) Late CNS leukemia
3) Normal WBC count at diagnosis
4) Disease presents between age 2 and 10"
1) Presence of a mediastinal mass indicates a poor prognosis. The rest of the choices refer to diagnosis not prognosis.
"The nurse writes a nursing problem of "altered nutrition" for a client diagnosed withleukemia who has received a treatment regimen of chemotherapy and radiation. Which nursing intervention should be implemented?
"1. Administer an antidiarrheal medication prior to meals
2. Monitor the client's serum albumin levels
3. Assess for signs and symptoms of infection
4. Provide skin care to irradiated areas"
1. The nurse should administer an antiemetic prior to meals, not an antidiarrheal medication
2. Serum albumin is a measure of the protein content in the blood that is derived form food eaten; albumin monitors nutritional status
3. Assessment of the nutritional status is indicated for this problem, not assessment of the s/sx of infections.
4. This addresses an altered skin integrity problem"
A 43-year-old African American male is admitted with sickle cell anemia. The nurse plans to assess circulation in the lower extremities every 2 hours. Which of the following outcome criteria would the nurse use? "
a. Body temperature of 99°F or less
b. Toes moved in active range of motion
c. Sensation reported when soles of feet are touched
d. Capillary refill of < 3 seconds"
Answer D is correct. It is important to assess the extremities for blood vessel occlusion in the client with sickle cell anemia because a change in capillary refill would indicate a change in circulation. Body temperature, motion, and sensation would not give information regarding peripheral circulation; therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
"The mother of a 5-year-old child asks the nurse questions regarding the importance of vigilant use of sunscreen. Which information is most important for the nurse to convey to the mother?
"A. Appropriate use of sunscreen decreases the risk of skin cancer.
B. Repeated exposure to the sun causes premature aging of the skin.
C. A child's skin is delicate, and burns easily.
D. In addition to causing skin cancer, repeated sun exposure predisposes the child to other forms of cancer."
Appropriate use of sunscreen decreases the risk of skin cancer.
While all of the answer choices are correct, recommending the use of sunscreen to decrease the incidence of skin cancer is the best response.
Nursing Process: Implementation
Category of Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Cognitive Level: Application"
A 4 yo is admitted for abdominal pain. She has been pale and excessively tired and is bruising easily. On physical exam, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomaegaly are noted. Diagnostic studies are being performed on the child because acute lymphocytic leukemia is suspected. Which diagnostic study would confirm this diagnosis
"1. Platelet count
2. LUmbar puncture
3. bone marrow biopsy
4. wbc count"
3 leukemia is a malignant increase in the number of leukocytes, usually at an immature stage, in the bone marrow. The confirmatory test is microscopic exam of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. a lumbar puncture may be done to look for blast cells in the scfluid that indicate CNS disease. The wbc count may be normal, high or low in leukemia an altered platelet count occurs as a result of the disease but also may occur as a result of chemotherapy and does not confirm the diagnosis"
"Nursing considerations related to the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs include which of the following? "A. Anaphylaxis cannot occur, since the drugs are considered toxic to normal cells.
B. Infiltration will not occur unless superficial veins are used for the intravenous infusion.
C. Many chemotherapeutic agents are vesicants that can cause severe cellular damage if drug infiltrates.
D. Good hand washing is essential when handling chemotherapeutic drugs, but gloves are not necessary."
"Correct: C 3. Chemotherapeutic agents can be extremely damaging to cells. Nurses experienced with the administration of vesicant drugs should be
responsible for giving these drugs and be prepared to treat
extravasations if necessary.
1. Anaphylaxis is a possibility with some chemotherapeutic and immunologic agents.
2. Infiltration and extravasations are always a risk, especially with peripheral veins.
4. Gloves are worn to protect the nurse when handling the drugs, and the hands should be thoroughly washed afterward.
Level of cognitive ability: Analysis
Area of client needs: Physiologic Integrity/Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapy
Integrated process: Teaching/Learning; Nursing Process: Implementation"
"After a client with a potential diagnosis of leukemia is admitted to the
hospital, the nurse should assess for which of the following? (Select
all that apply.)" "
A. Reports of fatigue and weakness
B. An elevation in the leukocytes
C. Signs of bruising easily
D. Recent weight gain"
"Correct: A, C
ANSWER: Reports of fatigue and weakness Signs of bruising easily
Rationale: General manifestations of leukemia
result from anemia, infection, and bleeding. The client would complain
of fatigue and weakness and show signs of bruising. Leukemic cells
replace normal hematopoietic elements preventing the formation of mature
leukocytes. Neutrophil count would be decreased. Because of an
increased metabolism, weight loss may occur.
Strategy: It is important to read every word in the question. Do not speed-read."
"After a client is admitted to the pediatric unit with a diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia, the laboratory test indicates that the client is neutropenic. The nurse should perform which of the following?"
"A. advise the client to rest and avoid exertion
B. prevent client exposure ot infections
C. monitor the blood pressure frequently
D. observe for increased bruising"
Rationale: Neutropenia is a decreased number of
neutrophil cells in the blood which are responsible for the body's
defense against infection. Rest and avoid exertion would be related to
erythrocytes and oxygen carrying properties. Monitoring the blood
pressure, and observing for bruising would be related to platelets and
sign and symptoms of bleeding.
Objective: Describe the major types of leukemia and the most common treatment modalities and nursing interventions."
"The mother of a child diagnosed with a potentially life-threatening form of cancer says to the nurse, ""I don't understand how this could happen to us. We have been so careful to make sure our child is healthy."" Which response by the nurse is most appropriate?
"A. Why do you say that? Do you think that you could have prevented this?""
B. ""This must be a difficult time for you and your family. Would you like to talk about how you are feeling?""
C. ""You shouldn't feel that you could have prevented the cancer. It is not your fault.""
D.""Many children are diagnosed with cancer. It is not always life-threatening."""
Parents of children diagnosed with cancer require major emotional support, and should be allowed to express their feelings. Prevention and blaming oneself is not supportive, nor is telling the parents that there are many other children with cancer."
The nurse is assessing a client diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Which assessment data support this diagnosis?
"1.) Fever and infections.
2.) Nausea and vomiting.
3.) Excessive energy and high platelet counts.
4.) Cervical lymph node enlargement and positive acid-fast bacillus."
1. Fever and infection are hallmark symptoms of leukemia. They occur because the bone marrow is unable to produce WBCs of the number and maturity needed to fight infection (CORRECT). 2. Nausea and vomiting are symptoms related to the treatment of cancer but not to the diagnosis of leukemia (omit #2). 3. The clients are frequently fatigued and have low platelet counts. The platelet count is low as a result of the inability of the bone marrow to produce the needed cells (omit #3). 4. Cervical lymph node enlargement is associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, and positive acid-fast bacillus is diagnostic for tuberculosis (omit #4)."
"A bone marrow transplant is being considered
for treatment of a patient with acute leukemia that has not responded to chemotherapy. In discussing the treatment with the patient, the nurse explains that
"a. hospitalization will be required for several weeks after the hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
b. the transplant of the donated cells is painful because of the nerves in the tissue lining the bone.
c. donor bone marrow cells are transplanted immediately after an infusion of chemotherapy.
d. the transplant procedure takes place in a sterile operating room to minimize the risk for infection."
"Correct Answer: A
The patient requires strict protective isolation to prevent infection for 2 to 4 weeks after HSCT while waiting for the transplanted marrow to start producing cells. The transplanted cells are infused through an IV line, so the transplant is not painful, nor is an operating room required. The HSCT takes place 1 or 2 days after chemotherapy to prevent damage to the transplanted cells by the chemotherapy drug."
A bone marrow transplant is being considered for treatment of a patient with acute leukemia that has not responded to chemotherapy. In discussing the treatment with the patient, the nurse explains that
a. hospitalization will be required for several weeks after the hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
b. the transplant of the donated cells is painful because of the nerves in the tissue lining the bone.
c. donor bone marrow cells are transplanted immediately after an infusion of chemotherapy.
d. the transplant procedure takes place in a sterile operating room to minimize the risk for infection.
Rationale: The patient requires strict protective isolation to prevent infection for 2 to 4 weeks after HSCT while waiting for the transplanted marrow to start producing cells. The transplanted cells are infused through an IV line, so the transplant is not painful, nor is an operating room required. The HSCT takes place 1 or 2 days after chemotherapy to prevent damage to the transplanted cells by the chemotherapy drugs.
After the nurse has explained the purpose of and schedule for chemotherapy to a 23-year-old patient who recently received a diagnosis of acute leukemia, the patient asks the nurse to repeat the information. Based on this assessment, which nursing diagnosis is most likely for the patient?
a. Acute confusion related to infiltration of leukemia cells into the central nervous system
b. Knowledge deficit: chemotherapy related to a lack of interest in learning about treatment
c. Risk for ineffective health maintenance related to anxiety about new leukemia diagnosis
d. Risk for ineffective adherence to treatment related to denial of need for chemotherapy
Rationale: The patient who has a new cancer diagnosis is likely to have high anxiety, which may impact learning and require that the nurse repeat and reinforce information. The patient's history of a recent diagnosis suggests that infiltration of the leukemia is not a likely cause of the confusion. The patient asks for the information to be repeated, indicating that lack of interest in learning and denial are not etiologic factors.
A hospitalized patient who has received chemotherapy for leukemia develops neutropenia. Which observation by the RN caring for the patient indicates that the nurse should take action?
a. The patient's visitors bring in some fresh peaches from home.
b. The patient ambulates several times a day in the room.
c. The patient uses soap and shampoo to shower every other day.
d. The patient cleans with a warm washcloth after having a stool.
Rationale: Fresh, thinned-skin peaches are not permitted in a neutropenic diet because of the risk of bacteria being present. The patient should ambulate in the room rather than the hospital hallway to avoid exposure to other patients or visitors. Because overuse of soap can dry the skin and increase infection risk, showering every other day is acceptable. Careful cleaning after having a bowel movement will help to prevent perineal skin breakdown and infection.
Which action by a nursing assistant (NA) when caring for a patient who is pancytopenic indicates a need for the nurse to intervene?
a. The NA assists the patient to use dental floss after eating.
b. The NA makes an oral rinse using 1 teaspoon of salt in a liter of water.
c. The NA adds baking soda to the patient's saline oral rinses.
d. The NA puts fluoride toothpaste on the patient's toothbrush.
Rationale: Use of dental floss is avoided in patients with pancytopenia because of the risk for infection and bleeding. The other actions are appropriate for oral care of a pancytopenic patient.
Which information noted by the nurse reviewing the laboratory results of a patient who is receiving chemotherapy is most important to report to the health care provider?
a. Hemoglobin of 10 g/L
b. WBC count of 1700/µl
c. Platelets of 65,000/µl
d. Serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg/dl
Rationale: Neutropenia places the patient at risk for severe infection and is an indication that the chemotherapy dose may need to be lower or that white blood cell (WBC) growth factors such as filgrastim (Neupogen) are needed. The other laboratory data do not indicate any immediate life-threatening adverse effects of the chemotherapy.
A chemotherapeutic agent known to cause alopecia is prescribed for a patient. To maintain the patient's self-esteem, the nurse plans to
a. suggest that the patient limit social contacts until regrowth of the hair occurs.
b. encourage the patient to purchase a wig or hat and wear it once hair loss begins.
c. have the patient wash the hair gently with a mild shampoo to minimize hair loss.
d. inform the patient that hair loss will not be permanent and that the hair will grow back.
Rationale: The patient is taught to anticipate hair loss and to be prepared with wigs, scarves, or hats. Limiting social contacts is not appropriate at a time when the patient is likely to need a good social support system. The damage occurs at the hair follicle and will occur regardless of gentle washing or use of a mild shampoo. The information that the hair will grow back is not immediately helpful in maintaining the patient's self-esteem
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