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2020 AP Psychology Exam Review
(excludes the Social Psychology & Clinical Psychology units)
Terms in this set (589)
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
an observable action
seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
seeing mind and body as two different things that interact
use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches
the view that knowledge should be acquired through observation and often an experiment
way of getting knowledge about the world based on observation
a collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to describe, explain, and predict behavior and mental processes
in psychology, the techniques used to discover knowledge about human behavior and mental processes
a tentative statement or idea expressing a causal relationship between two events or variables that is to be evaluated in a research study
a procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and make a cause-and-effect statement
the variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposefully manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected
the variable in a controlled experiment that is expected to change due to the manipulation of the independent variable
in an experiment, the group of participants to whom a treatment is given
subjects and not exposed to a changing variable in an experiment
a condition or characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change (it varies) within or across situations or individuals
a group of participants who are assumed to be representative of the population about which an inference is being made
selection of a part of the population without reason; participation is by chance
a definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods or procedures used to measure or study that variable
an individual who takes part in an experiment and whose behavior is observed as part of the data collection process
technique in which neither the persons involved for those conducting the experiment know in what group to participate is involved
a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after its completion
rules of proper and acceptable conduct that investigators use to guide psychological research
tendency to believe that one's own group is the standard, the reference point by which other people and groups should be judged
a highly detailed description of a single individual or a vent
ex post facto study
describes differences between groups of participants that differ naturally on a variable such as race or gender
observing and recording behavior naturally without trying to manipulate and control the situation
establish the relationship between two variables
the measurement of public opinion through the use of sampling and questioning
expectation of the person conducting an experiment which may be affect the outcome
expectations of an observer which may distort an authentic observation
preconceived notions of a person answering [a survey] which may alter the experiments purpose
the agreement of participants to take part in an experiment and their acknowledgement that they understand the nature of their participation in the research, and have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and methods
approximate distribution of scores expected when a sample is taken from a large population, drawn as a frequency polygon that often takes the form of a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve
typically a pill that is used as a control in the experiment; a sugar pill
an unscientific system which pretends to discover psychological information that his means are unscientific or deliberately fraudulent
selection of a part of the population which mirrors the current demographics
in an experiment, a difference that is unlikely to have occurred because of chance alone and is inferred to be most likely due to the systematic manipulations of variables by the researcher
when a researcher's expectations unknowingly create a situation that affects the results
branch of mathematics that deals with collecting, classifying, and analyzing data
general set of procedures used to summarize, condense, and describe sets of data
a chart or array of scores, usually arranged from highest to lowest, showing the number of instances for each score
graph of a frequency distribution that shows the number of instances of obtained scores, usually with the data points connect by straight lines
measure of central tendency
a descriptive statistic that tells which result or score best represents an entire set of scores
the arithmetic average of a set of scores
the measure of central tendency that is the data point with 50% of the scores above it and 50% below it
the most frequently occurring score in a set of data
the spread between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution
a number that expresses the degree and direction of the relationship between 2 variables, ranging from -1 to +1
procedures used to draw conclusions about larger populations from small samples of data
approximate distribution of scores expected when a sample is taken from a large population, drawn as a frequency polygon that often takes the form of a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve
a descriptive statistic that measures the variability of data from the mean of the sample
the extent to which scores differ from one another
school of psychological thought that considered the structure and elements of conscious experience to be the proper subject matter of psychology
a person's description and analysis of what he or she is thinking and feeling or what he or she has just thought about
school of psychological thought that was concerned with how and why the conscious mind works
perspective developed by freud, which assumes that psychological problems are the result of anxiety resulting from unresolved conflicts and forces of which a person might be unaware
school of psychological thought that argued that behavior cannot be studied in parts but must be viewed a s whole
perspective that defines psychology as the study of behavior that is directly observable or through assessment instruments
perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
perspective that emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the idea that humans have free will
the human need to fulfill one's potential
perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior
perspective that seeks to explain and predict behaviors by analyzing how the human brain developed over time, how it functions, and how input from the environment affects human behaviors
in emerging Theo psychology that focuses on positive experiences; includes subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to boorish
professional who studies behavior and uses behavioral principles in scientific research or in applied settings
psychologist who treats people serious psychological problems or conducts research into the causes of behavior
psychologist who treats people with adjustment problems
a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
one who uses psychoanalysis to treat psychological problems
studies psychological development across the lifespan
focuses on how effective teaching and learning take place
does research on how people function best with machines
applies psychological concepts to legal issues
focuses on psychological factors in illness
applies psychological principles to the workplace to improve productivity and the quality of work life
concerned with the relationship between brain/nervous system and behavior
focuses on methods of acquiring and analyzing data
assesses and counsels students, consults with educators and parents, and performs behavioral intervention when necessary
focuses on how the individual's behavior and mental processes are affected by interactions with other people
helps athletes improve their focus, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure
anything that causes a difference between the IV and the DV other than the independent variable
clues participants discover about the purpose of a study that suggest how they should respond
response to the belief that the IV will have an effect, rather than the IV's actual effect, which can be a confounding variable
the percentage of scores at or below a certain score
the repetition of an experiment to test the validity of its conclusion
all of the individuals in the group to which a study applies
after firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming message may be
neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles; lack of Ach linked with Alzheimer's disease;
an electrical current sent down the axon of a neuron and is initiated by the rapid reversal of the polarization of the cell membrane
ACTH (arenocorticotropic hormone)
released by adrenal glands; triggered by norepinephrine to prolong the response to stress (used in the sympathetic nervous system)
endocrine glands located above the kidney and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, which prepare the body for "fight or flight"
nerve cell that sends messages to brain or spinal cord from other parts of the body; also called sensory neurons
the law that the neuron either fires at 100% or not at all
part of the limbic system; influences emotions such as aggression, fear, and self-protective behaviors
inability to understand or use language
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather, they are involved in higher mental processes such as thinking, planning, and communicating
autonomic nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters
a single long, fiber that carries outgoing messages to other neurons, muscles, or glands
study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking
portion of the CNS above the spinal cord; consists of hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
top of the spinal column
located in left frontal lobe; controls production of speech
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes
wrinkled outer portion of brain; center for higher order brain functions such as thinking, planning, judgment; processes sensory information and directs movement
threadlike structure within the nucleus of cells that contain genes
computerized axial tomography (CT scan)
creates a computerized image using x-rays passed through the brain
the folds in the cerebral cortex that increase the surface area of the brain
large band of white neural fibers that connects to to brain hemispheres and carries messages between them; myelinated; involved in intelligence, consciousness, and self-awareness; does it reach full maturity until 20s
branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic formation in a double-helix; can replicate or reproduce itself; made of genes
member of a gene terror that controls the appearance of a certain trait
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
shows brain's electrical activity by positioning electrodes over the scalp
nerve cell that send messages from brain and spinal cord to other parts of body; also called motor neurons
the bodies "slow" chemical communication by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream
glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream, which regulate body and behavioral processes
chemical similar to opiates that relieves pain; may induce feelings of pleasure
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to fire
studies of hereditability on the assumption that if a gene influences a certain trait, close relatives should be more similar on that trait in distant relative
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
twins from two separate fertilized eggs (zygotes); share half of the same genes
control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plans; speech (Broca's area); controls movement of muscles
functional MRI (fMRI)
shows brain activity at higher reolution than PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration in neurons alters its magnetic qualities
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
neurotransmitter that inhibits firing of neurons; linked with Huntington's disease
a DNA segment on a chromosome that controls transmission of traits
study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
an individual's genetic make-up
supportive cells of nervous system that guide growth of new neurons; forms myelin sheath; holds neuron in place; provides nourishment and removes waste
reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries
shift in electrical charge in a tiny area of the neuron (temporary); transmits a long cell membranes leaving neuron and polarized state; needs higher than normal threshold of excitation to fire
the proportion of variation among individuals that is due to genetic causes
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new long-term memories
chemical that carries messages that travel through the bloodstream to help regulate bodily functions
30,000 genes needed to build a human
area of the brain that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors such as, eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, motivation; also body temperature
twins from a single fertilized egg (zygote) with the same genetic makeup; also called monozygotic (MZ) twins
chemical secreted at terminal button that prevents (or reduces ability of) the neuron on the other side of the synapse from firing
hormone backpacks in the regulation of blood sugar by acting in the utilization of carbohydrates; released by pancreas; too much-hypoglycemia, too little-diabetes
nerve cell that transmits messages between sensory and motor neurons
electrically charged particles found both inside and outside a neuron; negative ions are found inside the cell membrane in a polarized neuron
a donut ring-shaped of loosely connected structures located in the forebrain between the central core and cerebral hemispheres; consists of: septum, cingulate gyrus, endowments, hypothalamus, and to campus, and amygdala; associated with emotions and memories
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
creates a computerized image using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves
medulla (also medulla oblongata)
part of the brain which controls living functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
efferent neurons; neurons that carry messages from spinal cord/brain to muscles and glands
motor projection areas
primary motor cortex; areas of the three boat cortex for response messages from the brain to the muscles and glands
a white, fatty covering of the axon which speeds transmission of message
deals with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior
bundles of axons
action potential; the firing of a nerve cell; the entire process of the electrical charge (message/impulse) traveling through inner on; can be as fast as 400 fps (with myelin) or 3 fps (no myelin)
Ability of the brain to change their experience, both structurally and chemically
production of new brain cells; November 1988: cancer patients proved that new neurons grew until the end of life
individual cells that are the smallest unit of the nervous system; it has three functions: receive information, process it, send to rest of body
study of the brain and nervous system; overlaps with psychobiology
chemical messengers released by terminal buttons into the synapse
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted, but also carried by bloodstream to the anterior pituitary which relaxes ACTH thus prolonging stress response
primary area for processing visual information
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; regulates blood sugar by secreting to regulating hormones insulin and glucagon
parasympathetic nervous system
a branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body after sympathetic stimulation
hormone that controls imbalances levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood and tissue fluid; influences levels of excitability; secreted by parathyroids
for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes parathormone; controls announces level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)
processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain from other body parts
peripheral nervous system
division that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body; includes all sensory and motor neurons; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
the expression of genes
endocrine gland that produces melatonin that helps regulate sleep/wake cycle
endocrine gland that produces a large amount of hormones; it regulates growth and helps control other endocrine glands; located on underside of brain; sometimes called the "master gland"
when the neuron is at rest; condition of neuron when the inside of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside of Enron; is necessary to generate the neuron signal in release of this polarization
process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
part of the brain involved in sleep/wake cycles; also connects cerebellum and medulla to the cerebral cortex
positron emission tomography (PET scan)
shows brain activity when radioactively tagged glucose rushes to active neurons
study that focuses on biological foundations of behavior and mental processes; overlaps with neuroscience
a location on a receptor neurons which is like a key to a lock (with a specific nerve transmitter); allows for orderly pathways
member of the gene terror that controls the appearance of a certain trait only if it is paired with the same gene
relative refractory period
a period after firing when a neuron is returning to its normal polarize state and will only fire again if the incoming message open parentheses impulse) is stronger than usual; returning to arresting state
when a neuron is in polarization; more negative ions are inside the neuron cell membrane with a positive ions on the outside, causing a small electrical charge; release of this charge generates a neuron's impulse (signal/message)
reticular formation (RF) (RES)
netlike system of neurons that weaves through limbic system and plays an important role in attention, arousal, and alert functions; arouses and alerts higher parts of the brain; anesthetics work by temporary shutting off RF system
studies that estimate the hereditability of a trait by breeding animals with another animal that has the same trait
afferent neurons; neurons that carry messages from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cords
neurotransmitter that affects sleep, arousal, mood, appetite; lack of it is linked with depression
somatic nervous system
division of peripheral nervous system; controls voluntary actions
portion of the CNS that carries messages to the PNS; connects brain to the rest of the body
studies of hereditability it be a behavioral traits using animals that have been inbred to produce strains that are genetically similar to one another
sympathetic nervous system
a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; "fight or flight"
the space between two neurons where neurotransmitters are secreted by terminal buttons and received by dendrites
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
tiny oval-shaped sacs in a terminal of one neuron; assist in transferring mineral impulse from one neuron to another neuron by releasing specific neurotransmitters
main area for hearing, understanding language (Wernicke's area), understanding music; smell
terminal buttons (axon terminals)
ends of axons that secrete neurotransmitters
motor sensory relay center for four of the five senses; and with a brain stem and composed of two egg-shaped structures; integrates in shades incoming sensory signals; Mnemonic-"don't smell the llamas because the llamas smell bad"
located in neck; regulates metabolism by secreting thyroxine
released by thyroid; hormone that regulates the body's metabolism; OVERACTIVE-over-excitability, insomnia, reduced attention span, fatigue, snap decisions, reduced concentration (hyperthyroidism); UNDERACTIVE-desire to sleep, constantly tired, weight gain (hypothyroidism)
studies as identical and rhetorical twins to determine relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior
located in left temporal lobe; plays role in understanding language and making meaningful sentences
a person's inherited traits, determined by genetics
a person's experiences in the environment
unexpected changes in the gene replication process that are not always evident in phenotype and create unusual and sometimes harmful characteristics of body or behavior
dividing the chromosomes into smaller fragments that can be characterized and ordered so that the fragments reflect their respective locations on specific chromosomes
the principle that those characteristics and behaviors that help organisms adapt, be fit, and survive will be passed on to successive generations, because flexible, fit individuals have a greater chance of reproduction
a trait or inherited characteristic that has increased in a population because it solved a problem of survival or reproduction
the structures and organs that facilitate electrical and chemical communication in the body and allow all behavior and mental processes to take place
chemical that mimics or facilitates the actions of a neurotransmitter
chemical that opposes the actions of a neurotransmitter
the most primitive of the three functional divisions of the brain, consisting of the pons, medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum
the second level of the three organizational structures of the brain that receives signals from other parts of the brain or spinal cord and either relays the information to other parts of the brain or causes the body to act immediately; involved in movement
largest, most complicated, and most advanced of the three divisions of the brain; comprises the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, corpus callosum, and cortex
split brain patients
people whose corpus callosum has been surgically severed
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
the ability to recall past events, images, ideas, or previously learned information or skills; the storage system that allows a person to retain and retrieve previously learned information
organizing sensory information so it can be processed by the nervous system
brain encodes information in different ways or on different levels; deeper processing leads to deeper memory
encoding specificity principle
retrieval cues that match original information work better
transfer appropriate processing
occurs when initial processing of information is similar to the process of retrieval; the better the match, the better the recall
the process of maintaining or keeping information readily available; the locations where information is held
performs initial encoding; provides brief storage; also called sensory register
holds information for processing; fragile; also called short term memory or working memory
Lloyd and Margaret Peterson
did work on short-term memory
the number of items a person can reproduce from short-term memory, usually consisting of one or two chunks
manageable and meaningful units of information organized in such a way that it can be easily encoded, stored, and retrieved
process of repeatedly verbalizing, thinking about, or otherwise acting on or transforming information in order to keep that information active in memory
repetitive review of information with little or no interpretation
rehearsal involving repletion and analysis, in which a stimulus may be associated with (linked to) other information and further processed
Temporarily holds current or recent information for immediate or short-term use; Information is maintained for 20-30 seconds while active processing (e.g., rehearsal) takes place
storage mechanism that keeps a relatively permanent record of memory
memory for skills, including perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills required to complete tasks
memory for specific information
memory of specific personal events and situations (episodes) tagged with information about time
memory of ideas, rules, words, and general concepts about the world
conscious memory that a person is aware of
memory a person is not aware of possessing
the process of changing a short-term memory to a long-term one
process by which stored information is recovered from memory
ex post facto study
a type of design that contrasts groups of people who differ on some variable of interest to the researcher
the tendency to recall information learned while in a particular physiological state most accurately when one is in that physiological state again
the more accurate recall of items presented at the beginning of a series
the more accurate recall of items presented at the end of a series
the creation or re-creation of a mental picture of a sensory or perceptual experience
a conceptual framework that organizes information and allows a person to make sense of the world
loss of information from memory as a result of disuse and the passage of time
Von Restorff effect
occurs when recall is better for a distinctive item, even if it occurs in the middle of a list
the suppression of one bit of information by another
previously learned information interferes with the ability to learn new information
newly learned information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information
inability to remember information (typically, all events within a specific period), usually due to physiological trauma
loss of memory of events and experiences that preceded an amnesia-causing event
loss of memory for events and experiences occurring from the time of an amnesia-causing event forward
occurs when frightening, traumatic events are forgotten because people want to forget them
the biochemical processes that make it easier for the neuron to respond again when it has been stimulated
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
the first person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well
The study if the overlapping fields of perception, learning, memory, and thought, with a special emphasis on how people attend to, acquire, transform, store, and retrieve knowledge.
Mental category used to classify an event or object according to some distinguishing property or feature.
An abstraction, an idealized pattern of an object or idea that is stored in memory and used to decide whether similar objects or ideas are members of the same class of items.
The behavior of individuals when confronted with a situation or task that requires insight or determination of some unknown elements.
Procedure for solving a problem by implementing a set of rules over and over again until the solution is found.
Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
Heuristic procedure in which a problem is broken down into smaller steps, each of which has a subgoal.
Heuristic procedure in which the problem solver compares the current situation with the desired goal to determine the most efficient way to get from one to the other.
Heuristic procedure in which a problem solver works backward from the goal or end of a problem to the current position, in order to analyze the problem and reduce the steps needed to get from the current position to the goal.
Inability to see that an object can have a function other than its stated or usual one.
A feature of thought and problem solving that includes the tendency to generate or recognize ideas considered to be high-quality, original, novel, and appropriate.
In problem solving, the process of narrowing down choices and alternatives to arrive at a suitable answer.
In problem solving, the process of widening the range of possibilities and expanding the options for solutions.
Problem-solving technique that involves considering all possible solutions without making prior evaluative judgments.
The purposeful process by which a person generates logical and coherent ideas, evaluates situations, and reaches conclusions.
The system of principles of reasoning used to reach valid conclusions or make inferences.
Assessing and choosing among alternatives.
A system of symbols, usually words, that convey meaning and a set of rules for combining symbols to generate an infinite number of messages.
The study of language, including speech sounds, meaning, and grammar.
The study of how language is acquired, perceived, understood, and produced.
The study of the patterns and distributions of speech sounds in a language and the tacit rules for their pronunciation.
A basic or minimum unit of sound in a language.
A basic unit of meaning in a language.
The analysis of the meaning of language, especially of individual words.
The way words and groups of words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.
The linguistic description of how a language functions, especially the rules and patterns used for generating appropriate and comprehensible sentences.
A descriptive research method in which researchers study behavior in its natural context.
The general state of being aware of and responsive to events in the environment, as well as one's own mental processes
Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night
Graphical record of brain-wave activity obtained through electrodes placed on the scalp and forehead
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Stage of sleep characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude brain-wave activity, rapid and systematic eye movements, more vivid dreams, and postural muscle paralysis
Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Four distinct stages of sleep during which no rapid eye movements occur.
Problems in going to sleep or maintaining sleep
A state of consciousness that occurs during sleep, usually accompanied by vivid visual, tactile, or auditory imagery.
Dream in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming while it is happening
The overt story line, characters, and setting of a dream-the obvious, clearly discernible events of the dream
The deeper meaning of a dream, usually involving symbolism hidden meaning, and repressed or obscured ideas and wishes
Jung's theory of a shared storehouse of primitive ideas and images that are inherited ideas and images, called archetypes, are emotionally charged and rich in meaning and symbolism
A type of research method that allows researchers to measure variables so that they can develop a description of a situation or phenomenon
A process through which people receive information about the status of a physical system and use this feedback information to learn to control the activity of that system
The use of a variety of techniques including concentration, restriction of incoming stimuli, and deep relaxation to produce a state of consciousness characterized by a sense of detachment.
Any chemical substance that, in small amounts, alters biological or cognitive processes or both
A drug that alters behavior, thought, or perception by altering biochemical reactions in the nervous system, thereby affecting consciousness
The characteristic of requiring higher and higher doses of a drug to produce the same effect.
The situation that occurs when the drug becomes part of the body's functioning and produces withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
A mechanism that prevents certain molecule from entering the brain but allows others to cross
depressants (AKA sedative-hypnotics)
Any of a class of drugs that relax and calm a user and, in higher doses, induce sleep; also known as a depressant
opiates (AKA narcotics)
Drugs derived from the opium poppy, including opium, morphine, and heroin
A drug that increases alertness, reduces fatigue, and elevates mood
hallucinogens (AKA psychedelic drugs)
Consciousness-altering drugs that affect moods, thoughts, memory, judgment, and perception and that are consumed for the purpose of producing those results
A person who overuses and relies on drugs to deal with everyday life
The Reaction experienced when a substance abuser stops using a drug with dependence properties
level of consciousness that is outside awareness but contains feelings and memories that can easily be brought into conscious awareness
level of consciousness that includes unacceptable feelings, wishes, and thoughts not directly available to conscious awareness
the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
sleep stage when the eyes move about, during which vivid dreams occur; brain very active but skeletal muscles paralyzed
state with deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility
any internal condition, although usually an internal one, that initates, activates, or maintains an organism's goal directed behavior
Drive theory (aka, drive-reduction theory)
an explanation of behavior that assumes that an organism is motivated to act because of a need to attain, reestablish, or maintain some goal that helps with survival
an internal aroused condition that directs an organism to satisfy a physiological need
State of physiological imbalance usually accompanied by arousal
Maintenance of a constant state of inner stability or balance
The emotional state or condition that arises when a person must choose between two or more competing motives, behaviors, or impulses
Conflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternatives
Conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives
Conflict that results from having to choose an alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects
Activation of the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the muscles and glands
In the study of motivation, an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.
Explanations of behavior that focus on people's expectations about reaching a goal and their need for achievement as energizing factors
a specific (usually internal) condition, usually involving some form of arousal, which directs an organism's behavior toward a goal.
An aroused condition that directs people to behave in ways that allow them to feel good about themselves and others and to establish and maintain relationships
Motivation supplied by rewards that come from the external environment
Motivation that leads to behaviors engaged in for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself
Decrease in likelihood that an intrinsically motivated task, after having been extrinsically rewarded, will be performed when the reward is no longer given.
An explanation of behavior that emphasizes the entirety of life rather than individual components of behavior and focuses on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worth
In humanistic theory, the final level of psychological development, in which one strives to realize one's uniquely human potential-to achieve everything one is capable of achieving
the first phase of the sexual response cycle during which there are increases in heart rate blood pressure and respiration
In the sexual response cycle, engorgement of the blood vessels, particularly in the genital area, due to increased blood flow
the second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm
the third phase of the sexual response cycle, during which autonomic nervous system activity reaches its peak and muscle contractions occur in spasms throughout the body, but especially in the genital area
the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, following orgasm, during which the body returns to its resting, or normal state
One of the descriptive methods of research; it requires construction of a set of questions to administer to a group of participants
A sample that reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn
Need for achievement
A social need that directs a person to strive constantly for excellence and success
The belief that a person can successfully engage in and execute a specific behavior
A subjective response, usually accompanied by a physiological change, which is interpreted n a particular way by the individual and often leads to a change in behavior
the evaluation of the significance of a situation or event as it relates to a person's well-being
a need or want that causes someone to act
inherited, automatic species-specific behaviors
preset natural body weight, determined by the number of fat cells in the body
eating disorder most common in adolescent females characterized by weight less than 85% of normal, restricted eating, and unrealistic body image
eating disorder characterized by pattern 9of eating binges followed by purging (e.g., vomiting, laxatives, exercise)
James-Lange theory of emotion
conscious experience of emnotion results from one's awareness of physiological arousal
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
conscious experience of emotion and physiological arousal occur at the same time
opponent-process theory of emotion
following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion; on repeated occasions, the opposing emotion becomes stronger
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
we determine our emotion based on our physiological arousal, then label that emotion according to our explanation for that arousal
cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion
our emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we are in
Process in which the sense organs' receptor cells are stimulated and relay initial information to higher brain centers for further processing.
Process by which an organism selects and interprets sensory input so that it acquires meaning.
Subfield of psychology that focuses on the relationship between physical stimuli and people's conscious experiences of them.
The statistically determined minimum level of stimulation necessary to excite a perceptual system.
Perception below the threshold of awareness.
Signal Detection Theory
Theory that holds that an observer's perception depends not only on the intensity of a stimulus but also on the observer's motivation, the criteria he or she sets for determining that a signal is present, and on the background noise.
The entire spectrum of waves initiated by the movement of charged particles.
The small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Able to see clearly things that are close but having trouble seeing objects at a distance; nearsighted.
Able to see objects at a distance clearly but having trouble seeing things up close; farsighted
The light-sensitive cells in the retina- the rods and cones.
Process by which a perceptual system analyzes stimuli and converts them into electrical impulses; also known as coding.
The most important area of the brain's occipital lobe, which receives and further processes information from the lateral geniculate nucleus; also known as the striate cortex.
The increase in sensitivity to light that occurs when the illumination level changes from high to low, causing chemicals in the rods and cones to regenerate and return to their inactive state.
Point at which half of the optic nerve fibers from each eye cross over and connect to the other side of the brain.
Areas of the retina that, when stimulated, produce a change in the firing of cells in the visual system.
Rapid voluntary movements of the eyes.
The psychological property of light referred to as color, determined by the wavelengths of reflected light.
The lightness or darkness of reflected light, determined in large part by the light's intensity.
The depth and richness of a hue determined by determined by the homogeneity of the wavelengths contained in the reflected light; also known as purity.
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
The inability to perceive different hues.
Visual theory, proposed by Herring, that color is coded by stimulation of three types of paired receptors; each pair of receptors is assumed to operate in an antagonist way so that stimulation by a given wavelength produces excitation (increased firing) in one receptor of the pair and also inhibits the other receptor.
People who can perceive all three primary colors and thus can distinguish any hue.
People who cannot perceive any color, usually because their retinas lack cones.
People who can distinguish only two of the three basic colors.
Ability of the visual perceptual system to recognize that an object remains constant in size regardless of its distance from the observer or the size of its image on the retina.
minimum difference between any two stimuli that person can detect 50% of the time
just noticeable difference (JND)
experience of the difference threshold
transparent covering of the eye
colored part of the eye that regulates size of pupil
small opeing in iris that is smaller in bright light and larger in darkness
structure behind pupil that changes shape to focus light rays onto the retina
light-sensitive surface on back of eye containing rods and cones
small area of retina where image is focused
light sensitive cells (rods and cones) that convert light to electrochemical impulses
photoreceptors that detect black, white, and gray, and movement; used for vision in dim light
photoreceptors that detect color and fine detail in bright-light conditions; not present in peripheral vision
carries impulses from the eye to the brain
sharpness of vision
area on retina with no receptor cells (where optic nerve leaves the eye)
simultaneously analyzing different elements of sensory information, such as color, brightness, shape, etc.
temporary decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus that occurs when stimulation is unchanging
number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given amount of time; determines hue of light and the pitch of a sound
the sense of hearing
the highness or lowness of a sound
the quality of a sound determined by the purity of a waveform
the process by which the location of sound is determined
snail-shaped fluid-filled tube in the inner ear involved in transduction
gate control theory
pain is only experienced in the pain messages can pass through a gate in the spinal cord on their route to the brain
body sense that provides information about the position and movement of individual parts of the body
body sense of equilibrium and balance
sense of taste
sense of smell
focused awareness of only a limited amount of all you are capable of experiencing
information processing that begins at the sensory receptors and works up to perception
information processing guided by pre-existing knowledge or expectations to construct perceptions
depth cues that are based on one eye
depth cues that are based on two eyes
the controversial claim that sensation can occur apart from sensory input
Relatively permanent change in an organism that occurs as a result of experiences in the environment
Systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
Automatic behavior that occurs involuntarily in response to a stimulus and without prior learning and usually shows little variability from instance to instance
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; aka Pavlovian conditioning
Stimulus that normally produces a measurable involuntary response
Unlearned or involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus
Neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Process by which a neutral stimulus takes on conditioned properties through pairing with a conditioned stimulus
Extinction (classical conditioning)
The procedure of withholding the unconditioned stimulus and presenting the conditioned stimulus alone, which gradually reduces the probability of the conditioned response
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
Process by which a conditioned response becomes associated with a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus
Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other stimuli
Conditioning in which an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior;
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
Selective reinforcement of behaviors that gradually approach the desired response
Any event that increases the probability of a recurrence of the response that preceded it
Presentation of a stimulus after a particular response in order to increase the likelihood that the response will recur
Removal of a stimulus after a particular response to increase the likelihood that the response will recur
Reinforcer that has survival value for an organism; this value does not have to be learned
Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organism but that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer
Behavior learned through coincidental association with reinforcement
Process of presenting an undesirable or noxious stimulus, or removing a desirable stimulus, to decrease the probability that a preceding response will recur
Any stimulus or event that is naturally painful or unpleasant to an organism
Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic negative value for an organism but acquires punishing qualities when linked with a primary punisher
The behavior of giving up or not responding to punishment, exhibited by people or animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they have no control
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a specified interval of time, provided that the required response occurs at least once in the interval
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after predetermined but varying amounts of time, provided that the required response occurs at least once after each interval
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer(reward) is delivered after a specified number of responses has occurred
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a predetermined but variable number of responses has occurred
Extinction (operant conditioning)
The process by which the probability of an organism's emitting a response is reduced when reinforcement no longer follows the response
Learning that occurs in the absence of direct reinforcement and that is not necessarily demonstrated through observable behavior
Observational Learning Theory
Theory that suggests that organisms learn new responses by observing the behavior of a model and then imitating it; aka. Social learning theory
learning involving an unpleasant or harmful stimulus or reinforcer
Law of Effect
behaviors followed by pleasant consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by unpleasant consequences are weakened (Thorndike)
commonly occurring behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior
positively reinforcing closer and closer approximation of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior
operant training system that uses secondary reinforcers (tokens) to increase appropriate behavior; learners can exchange tokens for desired rewards
The overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment
Statistical procedure designed to discover the independent elements (factors) in any set of data
Process of developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test and for establishing norms
The scores and corresponding percentile ranks of a large and representative sample of individuals from the population for which a test was designed
A sample of individuals who match the population with whom they are being compared with regard to key variables such as socioeconomic status and age
A bell-shaped graphic representation of data showing what percentage of the population falls under each part of the curve
A test score that has not been transformed or converted in any way
A score that expresses an individual's position relative to the mean, based on the standard deviation
A score indicating what percentage of the test population would obtain a lower score
A standard IQ test score whose mean and standard deviation remain constant for all ages
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
Ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to measure and to predict what it is supposed to predict
The tendency for one characteristic of an individual to influence a tester's evaluation of other characteristics
A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship
The creation of a situation that unintentionally allows personal expectancies to influence participants
The genetically determined proportion of a trait's variation among individuals in a population
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
Below-average intellectual functioning, as measured on an IQ test, accompanied by substantial limitations in functioning that originate before age 8
Stanford-Binet intelligence tests
constructed by Lewis Terman, originally used ratio IQ (MA/CA x 100); now based on deviation from mean
Wechsler intelligence tests
three age individual IQ tests: WPPSI (children), WISC (children), WAIS (adults)
cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tends to diminish with age
learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary, which tends to increase with age
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
test designed to determine a person's level of knowledge in a given subject area
contractions can produce feelings of hunger
brain structure that serves as an "on/off" switch for eating
just the act of chewing can help` to satisfy feelings of hunger
the weight a person maintains when not trying to lose or gain weight; acts as a "thermostat" for fat levels
hormone released when weight is at or above the set point, giving the signal to eat less
factors that determine set point
genes and early eating patterns
chemical in the brain that drives us to seek reward; makes pleasure very memorable; involved in addiction
structures in the brain that are activated and make a person or animal feel good when doing certain behaviors
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one liter of water by 1° Celsius
body's main source of energy
also called simple sugars; found in fruits, vegetables, milk, processed foods
slower to digest and have more nutrients
BMI (body mass index) between 25 & 29.9
BMI (body mass index) of 30 or higher
food that causes the release of opioids in the brain and can lead to addiction
The period of extending from the onset of puberty to early adulthood
The period during which the reproductive system matures; it begins with an increase in the production of sex hormones, which signals the end of childhood
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The genetically determined physical features that differentiate the sexes but are not directly involved with reproduction
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they see themselves as always "on stage" with an audience watching
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they believe they are so special and unique that other people cannot understand them and risky behaviors will not harm them
A research method that focuses on a specific group of individuals at different ages to examine changes that have occurred over time
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ
A person's sense of being male or female
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and interpret their perceptions about the world and themselves
An eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat
Having both stereotypically male and stereotypically female characteristics
An eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating (and a fear of not being able to stop eating) followed by purging
Prejudice against the elderly and the resulting discrimination against them
Impairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature
A chronic and progressive disorder of the brain that is the most common cause of degeneration dementia
The study of the psychological and medical aspects of death and dying
first menstrual period
the cessation of the ability to reproduce
The study of the lifelong, often age-related, processes of change in the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, and social domains of functioning; such changes are rooted in biological mechanisms that are genetically controlled, as well as in social interactions
A fertilized egg
The prenatal organism from the 5th through the 49th day after conception
The prenatal organism from the 8th week after conception until birth
A mass of tissue that is attached to the wall f the uterus and connected to the developing fetus by the umbilical cord; it supplies nutrients and eliminates waste products
Substance that can produce developmental malformations (birth defects) during the prenatal period
Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched
Reflex in which a newborn stretches out the arms and legs and cries in response to a loud noise or an abrupt change in the environment
Reflex that causes a newborn to turn the head toward a light touch on lips or cheek
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
Reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any object touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand
The time in to development of an organism when it is especially sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside of that period the same influences will have far less effect
In Piaget's view, a specific mental structure; an organized way of interacting with the environment and experiencing it- a generalization a child makes based on comparable occurrences of various actins, usually physical, motor actions
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
The first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development (covering roughly the first 2 years of life), during which the child develops some motor coordination skills and a memory for past events
The realization of infants that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (lasting from about age 2 to age 6 or 7), during which the child begins to represent the world symbolically
Inability to perceive a situation or event except in relation to oneself; also know as self-centeredness
Process of changing from a totally self-oriented point of view to one that recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints
Concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (lasting from approximately age 6 or 7 to age 11 or 12), during which the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment, rules, and higher-order symbolic systems
Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
Formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (beginning at about age 12), during which the individual can think hypothetically, can consider future possibilities, and can use deductive logic
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ on an important dimension
Theory of mind
An understanding of mental states such as feelings, desires, beliefs, and intentions and of the causal role they play in human behavior
A system of learned attitudes about social practices, institutions, and individual behavior used to evaluate situations and behavior as right or wrong, good or bad
The biologically based categories of male and female
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between masculine and feminine sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society
The strong emotional tie that a person feels toward special other persons in his or her life
Special process of emotional attachment that may occur between parents and babies in the minutes and hours immediately after birth
Early-emerging and long-lasting individual differences in disposition and in the intensity and especially the quality of emotional reactions
A fixed, overly simple, sometimes incorrect idea about traits, attitudes, and behaviors of males or females
observed group differences based on the era when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particular experiences that may affect the results of cross-sectional studies
period of development from conception until birth
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
group of abnormalities that occur in the babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy
decreased responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same stimulus
framework of basic ideas about people, objects and events based on past experience in long-term memory
zone of proximal development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or children with more skill
preconventional level of moral development
morality based on consequences to self
growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically
conventional level of moral development
morality based on fitting in to the norms of society
postconventional level of moral development
morality based on one's own individual moral principles (i.e., conscience)
style of parenting marked by emotional coldness, imposing rules and expecting obedience
parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
A pattern of relatively permanent traits, dispositions, or characteristics that give some consistency to people's behavior.
Freud's level of mental life that consists of those experiences that we are aware of at any given time.
Freud's level of the mind that contains those experiences that are not currently conscious but may become so with varying degrees of difficulty.
Freud's level of mental life that consists of mental activities beyond people's normal awareness.
In Freud's theory, the source of a person's instinctual energy, which works mainly on the pleasure principle.
In Freud's theory, the part of personality that seeks to satisfy instinctual needs in accordance with reality.
In Freud's theory, the moral aspect of mental functioning comprising the ego ideal (what a person would ideally like to be) and the conscience and taught by parents and society.
Freud's first stage of personality development, from birth to about age 2, during which the instincts of infants are focused on the mouth as the primary pleasure center.
Freud's second stage of personality development, from about age 2 to about age 3, during which children learn to control the immediate gratification they obtain through defecation and to become responsive to the demands of society.
Freud's third stage of personality development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals.
Feelings of rivalry with the parent of the same sex and sexual desire for the parent of the other sex, occurring during the phallic stage and ultimately resolved through identification with the parent of the same sex.
Freud's fourth stage of personality development, from about age 7 until puberty, during which sexual urges are inactive.
Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).
In Freud's theory, the instinctual (and sexual) life force that, working on the pleasure principle and seeking immediate gratification, energizes the id.
An unconscious way of reducing anxiety by distorting perceptions of reality.
Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced to the unconscious.
Defense mechanism by which people reinterpret undesirable feelings or behaviors in terms that make them appear acceptable.
An excessive attachment to some person or object that was appropriate only at an earlier stage of development
A return to a prior stage after a person has progressed through the various stages of development; caused by anxiety.
Defense mechanism by which people attribute their own undesirable traits to others.
Defense mechanism by which people behave in a way opposite to what their true but anxiety-provoking feelings would dictate.
Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person.
Defense mechanism by which people refuse to accept reality.
Defense mechanism by which people redirect socially unacceptable impulses toward acceptable goals.
In Adler's theory, a feeling of openness with all humanity.
In Jung's theory, a shared storehouse of primitive ideas and images that reside in the unconscious and are inherited from one's ancestors.
In Jung's theory, the emotionally charged ideas and images that are rich in meaning and symbolism and exist within the collective unconscious.
A research approach that follows a group of people over time to determine change or stability in behavior.
Any readily identifiable stable quality that characterizes how an individual differs from other individuals.
Personality categories in which broad collections of traits are loosely tied together and interrelated.
The process of growth and the realization of individual potential; in the humanistic view, a final level of psychological development in which a person attempts to minimize ill health, be fully functioning, have a superior perception of reality, and feel a strong sense of self-acceptance.
In Roger's theory of personality, an inborn tendency directing people toward actualizing their essential nature and thus attaining their potential.
In Roger's theory of personality, the perception an individual has of himself or herself and of his or her relationships to other people and to various aspects of life.
In Roger's theory of personality, the self a person would ideally like to be.
A person's belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in and execute a specific behavior.
Process of evaluating individual differences among human beings by means of tests interviews, observations, and recordings of physiological.
Devices or instruments used to assess personality, in which examinees are shown a standard set of ambiguous stimuli and asked to respond to the stimuli in their own way.
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