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BSC 2086 Yung Su FSU exam 3

Terms in this set (100)

1.Physical Barriers
•Outer layer of skin, •Hair, •Epithelial layers of internal passageways, •Secretions that flush away materials
•Sweat glands, mucus, and urine, •Secretions that kill or inhibit microorganisms
2.Two Classes of Phagocytes
a. Microphages - Neutrophils and eosinophils - •Leave the bloodstream, •Enter peripheral tissues to fight infections
b. Macrophages - Large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes, •Distributed throughout body
3.Immunological Surveillance
•Is carried out by natural killer (NK) cells
•Activated NK Cells
1aIdentify and attach to abnormal cell (nonselective)
b.Golgi apparatus in NK cell forms perforin vesicles
c.Vesicles release proteins called perforins (exocytosis)
d.Perforins lyse abnormal cell's plasma membrane
4.Interferons
•Proteins (cytokines) released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages
•Cytokines
•Chemical messengers released by tissue cells
•To coordinate local activities
•To act as hormones to affect whole body
•Stimulates macrophage activity, NK cells, and slows inflammation
5.Complement
•Plasma contains 30 special complement (C) proteins
•That form complement system and complement antibody action, •Complement activation
•Complements work together in cascades (ex. positive feedback mechanism), •Two pathways activate the complement system, 1. Classical , 2. Alternative pathway
6.Inflammation - Also called inflammatory response
•A localized response
•Triggered by any stimulus that kills cells or injures tissue
•Cardinal Signs and Symptoms
•Swelling (tumor) - sign
•Redness (rubor) - sign
•Heat (calor) - sign
Pain (dolor)
7.Fever
•A maintained body temperature above 37.2°C (99°F)
•Pyrogens
•Any material that causes the hypothalamus to raise body temperature
•Circulating pathogens, toxins, or antibody complexes
•Endogenous pyrogens or interleukin-1 (IL-1)
•A cytokine that acts as a pyrogen; released by active macrophages