Terms in this set (94)
- "with [its own] juice"
- A sauce made by deglazing the fond and mirepoix with stock or broth, reducing and straining it, and seasoning or flavoring it as desired.
- Herbs, mushrooms, or other aromatics can be added to flavor the jus.
- The technique of cooking food by dry heat acting by convection, not radiation.
- A slow moist-heat cooking method that is typically used for beef briskest, beef or pork ribs, and pork shoulders. The smoldering wood used for heat creates a smoky flavor.
- Wrapping a thin sheet of fatback or caul fat around an item so the meat does not dry out during cooking. The item will not have a flavorful crust, but will have a moister interior.
- Cooking food by heat that radiates from the top down onto the food. It is typically done in a rodded surface, a sheet pan, or a sizzle platter.
- Two or more sets of intersecting parallel lines. The result of grilling an item approximately 25%, then rotating the item 90 degrees until cooked halfway, then flipping the item over to cook it another 25%, and then rotating the item 90 degrees for the remainder of the cooking process.
- The fat on the outside of a piece of meat.
- A coating made from hollandaise and whipped cream that is applied to delicate proteins to protect them from direct heat while cooking.
- To cook food by heat that radiates from below. Food is typically grilled on a grate, rack, or flat-top griddle.
- A sauce made by lightly thickening a jus with cornstarch or arrowroot slurry.
- The physical look of fat content in a cut of meat, which helps make the meat tender and juicy when cooked.
- inter-muscular distribution of fat
- Wagu & Kobe beef have the most even marbling => highest grade
- A combination of diced onions, carrots, celery, and ham that is used to garnish and flavor a dish. It is also called edible mirepoix.
- A lightly pounded an flattened cut of poultry or veal that is grilled quickly over a hot fire.
- A sauce made by caramelizing the mirepoix and clarifying the pan drippings, adding flour to the mixture to make a roux, then adding stock to the roux. - - The sauce is simmered, then strained and seasoned as desired.
- A mixture of fresh bread crumbs, butter, and herbs used to top or coat a delicate protein to protect it from direct heat while also lightly browning and crisping it.
- aka "butter roasting"
- a dry heat cooking method in which the item is cooked in its own juices in a covered pot, usually in the oven.
- most often associated with white meats and game birds.
- foods are liberally basted with butter, then allowed to cook in their own juices on a bed of aromatic vegetables and in a covered vessel.
- A piece of equipment that elevates the meat off the bottom of the roasting pan, which allows heat to surround the item on all sides.
- if the item sits on the bottom of the pan, that portion will cook at a different rate (sauté) than the rest, and therefore overcook ... if a roast lies in the pan juices and grease, it may become soft or fatty.
- a rack can be the traditional wire variety, or for more flavor, a natural rack of mirepoix or bones can be used.
- types of racks:
- U shaped basket
- nonadjustable V
- A process in which after the meat in cooked to the desired doneness, the meat sits for 5 to 10 minutes so the liquids redistribute throughout the meat before slicing or serving.
- May also apply to other foods.
- To cook food in a closed environment with dry air. The hot air cooks the outer layers, while the juices turn into steam and cook the food item from the inside out.
- Or, to cook meat on a spit over a fire.
- A type of equipment that is used to cook and serve broiled foods.
- The items may not need to be flipped during the cooking and will not get crosshatch marks.
- To tie or impale a food item on a long skewer or spit and then rotate it over an open flame.
- to add flavor (modern/valid reason)
- to preserve (olden days, before refrigeration was common => acid was a classical ingredient)
- to tenderize (acid, in the presence of moist heat, helps soften tough muscle tissue ... irrelevant when broiling of grilling because the meats are already tender)
- typical elements:
- acid (flavor)
- oils (protection,
- herbs, spices,
- timing (should
not be done for
Items appropriate for Grilling or Broiling
- G & B: naturally tender meats
- G: a quick technique, using portion control cuts or smaller cuts of meat, poultry, or fish ... the intense high, dry heat does not allow tougher cuts to tenderize
- G & B: should have an appropriate amount of marbling for moisture & juiciness, but external fat is not desirable as it melts and may causes flare-ups
- G: should be some-what thick and sturdy ... a good range is 1.25" to 2.25". 1" minimum for a grilled steak
- B: may be thick and sturdy; however, thinner and more delicate items such as lean fish may also be broiled effectively
Meats suitable for dry cooking
- lamb rack, lamb chops
- flank steak, skirt steak
- beef tenderloin, boneless pork loin
- boneless chicken breast, rabbit tenderloin
à la minute
- cooking food at the moment it is needed; cooked to order
- literally, "with dryness."
- describes a liquid that has been reduced until it has almost cooked away during deglazing
- coatings made from flour, liquid, and often a chemical leavener that protect, color, crisp, and puff or lighten a product
- the chemical changes that happen over time to oil during storage, heating, or exposure to light
- using high heat to cook a food that is completely submerged in fat
- considered to be a dry-heat cooking method
- the process of adding liquid to a pan an swirling it to stop the cooking process after the main item has been removed and the browned bits of food from the bottom are loosened up
- this liquid then becomes the base of the sauce used for the dish
- a French word meaning "golden" or "golden-brown"
- the dehydrated juices left in the pan after food is seared; they can be used to build a sauce
- a type of oil used when you do not want the flavor of the oil to clash with the flavors of the dish
- these oils include vegetable, peanut, and canola
- the use of high heat to cook a food item half covered by fat
- the outside gets crispy while the inside stays tender and juicy
- the best-looking side of a piece of meat; the side shown to the customer
- the time it takes the oil or equipment to return to the correct temperature after a product has been added or cooked
- food absorbs heat, causing the oil temperature to drop
- the more food added at one time, the lower the temperature drops and the longer the recovery time
- a fast cooking method using high heat and a small amount of fat to create color and caramelized flavor on tender proteins
- browning the surface of meat quickly by cooking it over high heat before finishing with another cooking method
- searing adds flavor and color
- the temperature to which oil can be heated to before it begins to smoke and discolor
standard breading procedure
- the procedure of coating a product in flour, eggs, and a breading agent, such as bread crumbs, cornmeal, or corn flakes
- a Chinese cooking technique similar to sautéing, in which a wok is used instead of a sauté pan
- foods are cut into uniform small pieces and stirred or tossed frequently as they cook
- a Chinese expression that describes capturing into the food the "hot breath" of a seasoned wok
- "hay" means "breath," "energy," or "spirit" in Cantonese
- describes food that has been stir-fried correctly
- the process of preliminary cooking of an item; then the cooking process is stopped and the item is completely cooked later at service
- most products are blanched in boiling water, refreshed in ice water, and then dried before sautéing
- however, vegetables such as potatoes may also be blanched in oil, first cooking at a lower temperature, followed by a higher temperature at service
- blanching helps to ensure that foods cook evenly
- "speed basting"
- the french verb which in a culinary context means to baste. (i.e. arrose the scallop with butter) This technique is useful when searing a piece of protein to evenly brown the seared surface with the hot oil or fat
- to tie up meat or poultry before cooking, which enhances appearance and helps with even cooking
- wrapping a thin sheet of fatback or caul fat around an item so the meat does not dry out during cooking
- the item will not have a flavorful crust, but will have a moister interior
- Some meats benefit by being threaded through with seasoned fat, such as venison, bottom round of beef and less marbled cuts of meat. It bastes the meat and contributes flavor and tenderness. Larding is done with strips (lardons or lardoons) of blanched salt pork, fresh salt pork, bacon. Using the needle, you thread strips through the meat at whatever intervals you prefer. If you pay attention to how the meat will be sliced against the grain, you can have the strips showing in a pattern
- covering a roasted item to retain heat while it's resting
- heat retained in the cooked food that allows the item to continue to cook even after being removed from the heat source
- the transfer of heat is through direct contact
- the transfer of heat is through a fluid, either a liquid or a gas
- poultry meat that contains more myoglobin and fat; these muscles are heavily exercised
- dark meat may have more connective tissue
- birds that fly, such as ducks, geese, and doves, have dark-meat breasts
- the primary oxygen-carrying pigment of muscle tissues
- Myoglobin contains hemes, pigments responsible for the color of red meat
- based on amount of flesh/muscle it yields
- enzymatic browning
- gives bread a brown crust
- the method of immersing food or bones into boiling water or hot fat to partially cook as a way to preserve their color, texture, and flavor
- foods immersed in boiling water are then submerged in an ice-water bath to stop the cooking process
- using a large amount of rapidly bubbling liquid to cook food quickly by transferring heat from the liquid to the food
- boiling water has a temperature of 212 degrees F (100 degrees C)
- a combination of water, mirepoix, acid, and aromatics that is brought to a boil for 10 minutes and then strained
- it is used as a poaching liquid
- the liquid left over after shallow poaching that is used as the base of a sauce
deep poaching / submerged poaching
- requires the item to be completely submerged in poaching liquid
- deep-poached items are usually larger, thicker, whole proteins
- items that are higher in fat (such as salmon) are also better deep-poached
- liquid left over is NOT used as base for sauce
- describes the process of cooking food in a parchment paper envelope or or foil
- cooking method in which the food is sealed in a pouch and baked
- the food essentially steams in the oven in its own juices
- can be used to cook vegetables, fruit, chicken, and fish ... as with other steamed foods, they must be naturally tender
- a description of proper doneness for food in which a fork can tear away a piece of meat with little resistance
- a method in which an item is cooked in a flavorful liquid at a temperature of 160 degrees to 180 degrees F (71 degrees to 82 degrees C) and the item's natural flavors, textures, colors, and nutritional qualities are preserved
- a method in which foods are cooked gently in a shallow covered pan of simmering liquid
- uses only a small amount of liquid, which reached no more than halfway up the item ... part of the cooking medium is actually vapor created by heating the liquid; the vapor is trapped by a lid, typically made of parchment paper
- requires some type of aromatic ingredient bed for the item to sit on so it does not contact the pan directly, which would result in that part cooking faster
- done on thinner, individual portions or smaller pieces of product
- a restrained version of a boil, 185 degrees to 200 degrees F (85 degrees to 93 degrees C), in which the bubble clusters are small and there is minimal steam
- French for "under vacuum"
- a method of cooking in vacuum-sealed plastic pouches at low temperatures for long times
- cooking a food item by completely immersing it in poaching liquid
- submerged poaching is usually used for larger, thicker, and whole proteins
- French for "slice" or "portion"
- an angled slice cut from a fish fillet
- a Cantonese technique in which a whole fowl or fish is immersed in a pot of boiling water ... the heat is then turned off and the pot is covered until the food is cooked
- the word "white" in Cantonese means "plain"
- the liquid in which the food is cooked is usually plain water, with maybe a few slices of ginger root
- white cooking differs from poaching in that the hot water is not heated continuously during immersion
- often "steamed fish" in a Chinese restaurant are actually white-cooked
- like white cooking except hot water is continuously heated during immersion
- method of deep-frying where product floats freely in fat
immersion circulator / thermal circulator
- a device with a heating element and digital controls that keeps water moving in a vessel at a precise, consistent temperature
- used in sous vide, or low-temp, cooking
- a white stew traditionally made from white meat (veal) or lamb
- the main item is simmered with mirepoix, drained and combined with garnishes, and finished in a sauce
- it is traditionally finished with a liaison of egg yolks and heavy cream
- a slow simmer of whole or portion cuts of the main food item that is cooked in a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pot
- it is usually started on the stove-top and finished in the oven
combination cooking method
- a cooking method that involves both dry- and moist-heat cooking methods
- a braise made from red meats that includes red wine
- the meat is often marinated before braising
- name is derived from the French pot used to cook the daube, the daubière, which has an indent ion in the lid to hold hot pieces if charcoal
- a white stew similar to the blanquette, except that the meat and garnish are cooked directly in the sauce
- a stew made from lamb or mutton, garnished with onions, peas, potatoes, and turnips
- gets its name from the French word for "turnip," navet
- an American version of the classic braise
- usually a roast-size piece of beef, which is often taken from the tougher chuck cut, is browned and braised
- usually served with its mirepoix, which are typically equal parts carrots and sliced onions
- some people in America prefer to sweeten pot roast by adding molasses, brown sugar, or ketchup
- pot roast includes adding potatoes to the pot during the later part of the cooking process
- "sauerbraten" is the German version of a pot roast
- cooking foods in a tightly-sealed container that traps steam and then builds pressure
- under pressure, cooking temperatures can be raised significantly higher than possible under normal conditions
- the super-heated steam created by this technique cooks foods quickly and evenly
- a French word for a hearty or rich stew of meat and/or vegetables
- literal translation is "restores the appetite"
- a popular cooking technique in China in which dark and light soy sauce, star anise or five-spice powder, sugar, and salt are added to a dish, giving it a red color
- also know as red stewing or red braising
- the cooking of bite-sized cuts, completely covered in liquid, that are cooked all the way through on the stovetop, uncovered
differences between braising and stewing
- braising involves larger pieces or cuts of the main item, whereas stewing always uses bite-sized cuts
- braising is dome in enough liquid to cover 1/3 to 1/2 of the main item
- stewed items are completely covered with liquid
- braised items are usually started on the stovetop and finished in the oven
- stews are typically cooked all the way through on the stovetop, uncovered
- braised items have a sauce from which the aromatics that form a flavor are strained out or puréed with the sauce; stews normally retain their mirepoix
- include such dishes as bouillabaisse, cacciatore, and stroganoff
- these dishes are started in the method of a classic braise or stew in that they are seared and a cooking liquid is made by deglazing the pan
- the method differs from that point in that the products are cooked for less time than a traditional braise or stew, due to natural tenderness of the proteins
- also, the product requires less liquid
- whit this method, the parallel between combination cooking methods shifts from searing and simmering to searing a poaching
- the purpose of this method is not necessarily to tenderize, but rather to maximize an item'a potential flavor and apply regionally or culturally appropriate techniques to specific foods
vary rare steak
- 120 degrees F
(49 degrees C)
- blood red in the center and barely warm
- feels soft and squishy
- my cowboy friends say a good vet could still save the cow
- 125 degrees F
(52 degrees C)
- feels soft to the touch
- red in the center and warm throughout
- 130 to 135 degrees F (54 to 57 degrees C)
- yields gently to the touch
- pinkish-red in the center and fairly hot
- 140 to 145 degrees F (60 to 63 degrees C)
- yields only slightly to the touch, beginning to firm up
- pink in the center, grayish-brown surrounding, hot throughout
- 150 to 155 degrees F (66 to 68 degrees C)
- firm to the touch
- grayish-brown center, only a trace of pink
- 160+ degrees F (71+ degrees C)
- hard to the touch
- gray in the center
- "shoe leather"
well-done white meats (veal and pork)
- 140 to 145 degrees F (60 to 63 degrees C)
- *FDA guidelines require that pork reach a finished internal temperature of 160 degrees F (71 degrees C) to be considered medium
well-done fish and shellfish
- 140 degrees F (60 degrees C)
- 165 degrees F (74 degrees C)
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