25 terms

Knowledge Management

Module 10 CIO Article
What is knowledge management?
The process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Codifying what is known.
The process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with others who need it.
What are the two categories of intellectual and knowledge based assets?
Explicit and tactic.
What is an explicit asset/knowledge?
As a general rule of thumb, explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented, archived and codified, often with the help of IT.
- Relatively easy to communicate and transfer
- Does not rely on face-to-face contact for transfer
- Usually can be reduced to rules or recipes
- Stored electronically and transmitted online
Assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, marketing research and customer lists.
An arriving passenger profile fits the criteria for investigation.
A drug company shares knowledge about regulatory approval processes and brings a new drug to market faster and cheaper.
What is tactic knowledge?
The knowledge contained in people's heads.
Resides within a person's expertise.
Is personal.
Can be technical knowledge or based on beliefs, hunches, emotions, perceptions or mental models.
A loan officer approves a loan for a new company based on it's business model.
A steel worker knows when the steel is hot enough to roll.
What are two practices for recreating or transferring tactic knowledge in an organization?
Shadowing and joint problem-solving
What is shadowing?
When less experienced staff observe more experienced staff in their activities.
What do Leonard and Swap suggest in order to make shadowing effective?
Having the "protégé" discuss their observations with the "expert" in order to deepen their dialog and crystallize the knowledge transfer
What is joint problem-solving?
When the novice and the expert work together to approach a problem or do work. Less passive than shadowing.
What benefits can an organisation expect from effective KM?
- Foster innovation, encourage free flow of ideas
- Improve customer service by streamlining response times
- Boost revenues by getting products/services to market faster
- Enhance employee retention rates by recognising employee value
- Streamline processes/reduce costs by eliminating ineffective processes
What is a good way to approach a new KM?
- Start small (easier to manage, get funding, less risky, build on success)
- Define value you want to achieve, design metrics to measure the success
- Ensure it is working toward a business goal, purpose
What are the challenges of KM?
- Getting employees on board
- Ongoing maintenance
- Dealing with a data deluge (quality over quantity)
How can I gain support for my KM effort and get people to use the systems and processes we're putting in place to facilitate KM?
- Pilot the project among employees who have the most to gain/key influencers
- Make it easy for employees to participate/be involved
- Link KM to job performane/recognise contributers
- Create incentive programs to motivate employees
Who should lead KM efforts?
It depends...
- Enterprise wide it should not be the CIO
- Within IT, the CIO is an ok option
- Some companies have dedicated KM staff (Chief Knowledgement Officer, a high-profile executive)
- An executive sponsor within a functional area
What technologies can support KM?
KM is not a technology-based concept. Usually fall into one of the following categories:
knowledge repositories, expertise access tools, e-learning applications, discussion and chat technologies, synchronous interaction tools, and search and data mining tools.
What is Social Network Analysis (SNA)?
The process of mapping a group's contacts (whether personal or professional) to identify who knows whom and who works with whom. In enterprises, it provides a clear picture of the ways that far flung employees and divisions work together and can help identify key experts in the organization who possess the knowledge needed to, say, solve a complicated programming problem or launch a new product.
What is indexing?
Once knowledge is captured from various sources, indexing enables users to easily access that knowledge.
What is Real Simple Syndication (RSS)?
A standard for subscribing to content resources.
Mostly used for capturing extra-organisational knowledge.
What is an expert system?
A system that captures human expertise and puts it in a format for use by non-experts.
Based on rule based systems i.e. "if.... then...."
What are the steps in the Knowledge Management Cycle?
1. Capture knowledge (record experiences, scan documents)
2. Organise knowledge (coding, keyword indexing)
3. Store knowledge (store electronically, most likely in a textual database)
4. Retrieve knowledge (use codes, keywords)
5. Use knowledge (the ultimate goal of knowledge management)
REPEAT because USE generates NEW KNOWLEDGE...
What is a community of practice?
A group of people with a common interest.
KM works well within a community of practice.
What organisational benefits does knowledge management provide?
- Foster innovation by encouraging freeflow of ideas
- Improve customer service by increasing response time
- Boost revenues by getting products to market quicker
- Enhance employee retention by recognising value of employee knowledge
- Eliminate redundant processes
- Make better decisions by avoiding other's mistakes
- New products and services fuelled by innovation
What are the major challenges in implementing knowledge management?
- Knowledge is power, employees don't want to share it
- Individual work bias (I can do this myself) needs to work toward teamwork/collaboration
- Local focus (we know best) needs to be converted to network focus; create community of practice
- People fear being penalised for sharing problems, mistakes and failures.
- Employees feel they are not paid to share. Incentive programmes can help to combat this.
- Lack of time to share knowledge. Knowledge capture process needs to be quick, easy and integrated into other practices.
- Lack of appropriate technology/skill sets to implement KM systems
What are the critical success factors (CSFs) for implementing a KM project?
- Start small (one location, one functional area, one community of practice)
- Pilot the project with the employees that have the most to gain.
- Implement a proven approach.
- Make it as easy as possible.
- Create incentive programmes (link knowledge sharing/use to job performance, create a safe climate for sharing, recognise those who contribute)
- Look for and publicise KM success stories
- Implement best practice in project management (someone to be accountable, need a project champion, needs a special team including technologists/HR/process people/change agents, needs budget with not more than one third for technology
What is the role of ICT in KM?
ICT has a key role.
Knowledge management is not a technology project, but ICTs enable most KM activities.
- Communication technologies allow access to knowledge
- Collaboration systems allow group work, esp. communities of practice
- Storage technologies include databases and document management
What are some examples of ICT tools for KM?
- KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORIES (wiki pages and notes)
- e-LEARNING APPLICATIONS (e-learning apps, video)
- EXPERTISE ACCESS (searchable SN tool can help find experts or communities of practice)
- DISCUSSION AND CHAT TECHNOLOGIES (text or video e.g. Messenger, Skype.... tactic knowledge best delivered using synchronous interactive method)
- SEARCH ENGINES (for knowledge capture and knowledge retrieval)