sworn to secrecy. open debate without public interferance
The Constitution- signed by how many people
The Constitutional Convention- how many states signed
9 states signed
3 Things the Constitution dealt with
liberty vs order freedom vs authority power of federal government vs power of state and local government
What did the new republican government have?
executive branch of government; checks and balances; it was a democracy, republic, and a monarchy in one; government could tax the people, states had power
The intent of the constitution was to give who the power?
Congress, not the president
question brought up by the constitution
who has the authority to call something unconstitutional
Federalists and the constitution
how did the states ratify the constitution?
defended the constitution
2 states that resisted ratification and why
Rhode Island and North Carolina, because the wanted a bill of rights
How did New York ratify the constitution?
with the help of Alexander Hamilton
3 problems that the nation faced in making the nation work
1) what is the nation's destiny? 2) what type of national government is needed? 3) who is going to control the government
the early division in politics
Federalists and anti federalists
who led the federalists?
who led the anti-federlalists?
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Federalists favored who?
the wealthy and educated- the natural aristocracy
the anti-federalists (republicans) favored who?
farmers and western expansion
Jefferson wanted the powers to be-
balance between federal government and state government powers
Views on the French Revolution for the feds/anti-feds?
Hamilton-hated the French Rev. Jefferson-pro French Rev.
Federalists interpretation of the constitution
Anti-federalists interpretation fo the constitution
Hamilton and the national bank
Hamilton wanted to pay off all debs and wanted to tie America's wealth to the government
Jefferson and the national bank
Jefferson did not like the national bank
America position during France and England's war
America declared neutrality, but traded with both governments
Hamilton during the French and English war-
almost persuaded president to fight the French, but really wanted an army against the republicans (anti-federalists)
an attempt to shut-up republicans
"Alien" in the Alien-Sedition Act-
aimed at stopping french immigrants from joining the Republicans. French took 14 years to become a citizen.
"Sedition" in the Alien-Sedition Act-
direct attempt to deny 1st ammendment. Any person who criticized the government was put in jail.
Jefferson and Madison's response to the Alien-Sedition Act-
Kentucky and Virginian legislatures questioned who has the right to call something unconstitutional.
the election 1800 transferred power from-
Federalists to anti-federalists from the aristocracy to the people
election of 1800 winner
"what makes a great president"
pushing the limits of the constitution
3 things that Jefferson did during his presidency?
1)renewal of the national bank 2)The Louisiana purchase 3)Embargo of 1807'
The Louisiana Purchase
purchased by Jefferson from Napolean Bonapart for $15 million. doubled the nation's size. defeated out the federalists
Embargo Act of 1807
forbid American ships to trade with France or England during their war.
1808 became president 1812- went to Congress to declare war on England
war of 1812
America's 2nd war for independence
Burned the capital, tired to invade Baltimore
Star Spangled Banner
written by Francis Scott Key at Baltimore
treaty between England and America
1814, treaty of Ghent
Battle at New Orleans
Andrew Jackson and his troops beat out English even though the war was technically over.
4 things that came out of the American "victory" in 1812.
1) brought national unity 2) respect from Europeans 3) allowed Indians to be defeated in the west 4) brought about victory for the Republicans
radical federalist meeting, they wanted more power. Their meeting ended badly, they looked like traitors.
Supreme Court's power
Supreme Court has no power from the constitution to declare things unconstitutional
head judge of the supreme court
regard of the federal law to the Constitution
What did John Marshall accomplish in office?
judicial review and created the 3rd branch of government
president elected in 1816
2 guiding forces in America after 1815
Manifest Destiny, Sectionalism
aka Henry Clay's "American Way" American Christians believed the Kingdom of God would start in America and spread across world. America had first democracy for hundreds of years. unique events to make settlements of wilderness
sectionalism in between the North and the South (because of slavery)
average american became...
what gave America a sense of destiny (3)
1) America left Europe behind after 1814 2) great migration went west 3) politics grew
America leaving Europe behind after 1814
Monroe signed treaties for more land west. Signed treaties with Britain to stabilize northern borders. Bought Florida from Spain for $5 million. The Monroe Doctrine.
The Great Migration-
Americans moved west. 8 new western states. population was growing.
2 party system grew. common man was involved in politics. Jackson started the 2 party system so stop the reign of Republicans. Started the Democratic party.
Trail of tears to Oklahoma, Annexed Texas and fought Mexico, brought tariffs.
2 things that almost split America
States rights vs Federal gov't Slavery
Tariffs of Abomination
changed the Souths perception of the union.
Annexation of Missouri
held the balance to become free or slave.
Talmage's idea to save the union
amended Missouri's constitution. If MO became a slave state, no more slaves would be allowed int MO. also any slave over the age of 25 could be freed. It failed
Missouri Compromise made by
introduced in 1817 by Clinton allowed Midwest to grow agriculture commercially
from Albany to great lakes. Clinton payed $7 million for it. shipping dropped by 90%
Revolutionized commercial trade on the Mississippi river.
the "invention supreme" of transportation
competition against the canals
where was most of the railroads built?
in the north
railroads and time zones?
to standardize train schedules
436 miles of train
evolution of transportation after railroad
1888 automobile, 1903 airplanes, 1928 first transcontinental flight
telegraph- when and what did it do?
1845, brought the civil war into the living rooms of families
mass production of newspapers and brought down the price of news
let the people know what war was like. Able to see the dead bodies of the battlefields in their living rooms
significance of the developments of politics, transportation, and communication
they were all happening simultaneously to transform America
What helped develop the national economy?
economies of the northeast, northwest, and the south
NE-industrialization NW-commercial agriculture S-Cotton and slavery