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141 terms

Management Exam #2

STUDY
PLAY
Ethics
the set of moral principles or values that defines right or wrong for a person or group
Ethical Behavior
behavior that conforms to a society's accepted principles of right and wrong
Workplace Deviance
unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong
Production Deviance
unethical behavior that hurts the quality and quantity of work produced
Property Deviance
unethical behavior aimed at the organization's property or products
Employee Shrinkage
employee theft of company merchandise
Political Deviance
using one's influence to harm others in the company
Personal Aggression
hostile or aggressive behavior toward others
Ethical Intensity
the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue
Magnitude of Consequences
the total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision
Social Consensus
agreement on whether behavior is bad or good
Probability of Effect
the chance that something will happen and then harm others
Temporal Immediacy
the time btwn an act and the consequences the act produces
Proximity of Effect
the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance btwn a decision maker and those affected by his or her decisions
Concentration of Effect
the total harm or benefit that an act produces on the average person
Preconventional Level of Moral Development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on selfish reasons
Conventional Level of Moral Development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions that conform to societal expectations
Postconventional Level of Moral Development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on internalized principles
Priniciple of Long Term Self Interest
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take an action that is not in your or your organizations long term self interest
Principle of Personal Virtue
an ethical principle that holds that you should never do anything that is not honest, open, and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported in the newspapers or on TV
Principle of Religious Injuctions
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community
Principle of Government Requirements
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that violates the law, for the law represents the minimal moral standard
Principle of Utilitarian Benefits
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that does not result in greater good for society
Priniciple of Individual Rights
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that infringes on others' agreed-upon rights
Principle of Distributive Justice
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that harms the least fortunate among us: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed
Overt Integrity Test
a written test that estimates job applicants' honesty by directly asking them what they think or feel about theft or about punishment of unethical behaviors
Personality Based Integrity Test
a written test that indirectly estimates job applicants' honesty by measuring psychological traits such as dependability and conscientiousness
Whistleblowing
reporting others' ethics violations to management or legal authorities
Social Responsibility
a business's obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society
Shareholder Model
a view of social responsibility that holds that an organization's overriding goal should be to maximize profit for the benefit of shareholders
Stakeholder Model
a theory of corporate responsibility that holds that management's most important responsibility, long term survival, is achieved by satisfying that interests of multiple corporate stakeholders
Stakeholders
persons or groups w/ a "stake" or legitimate interest in a company's actions
Primary Stakeholder
any group on which an organization relies for it long term survival
Secondary Stakeholder
any group that can influence or be influenced by a company and can affect public perceptions about its socially responsible behavior
Economic Responsibility
the expectation that a company will make a profit by producing a valued product or service
Legal Responsibilty
a company's social responsibility to obey society's laws and regulations
Ethical Responsibility
a company's social responsibility not to violate accepted principle of right and wrong when conducting business
Discretionary Responsibility
the expectation that a company will voluntarily serve a social role beyond its economic, legal and ethical responsibilities
Social Responsiveness
refers to a company's strategy for responding to stakeholders' expectations concerning economic, legal, ethical, or discretionary responsibility
Reactive Strategy
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company does less than society expects
Defensive Strategy
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company admits responsibility for a problem but does the least required to meet societal expectations
Accommodative Strategy
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company accepts responsibility for a problem and does all that society expects to solve that problem
Proactive Strategy
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company anticipates responsibility for a problem before it occurs and does more than society expects to address the problem
Motivation
the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal
Needs
the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being
Extrinsic Reward
a reward that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors
Intrinsic Reward
a natural reward associated w/ peforming a task or activity for its own sake
Equity Theory
a theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly
Inputs
in equity theory, the contributions employees make to the organization
Outcomes
in equity theory, the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization
Referents
in equity theory, others w/ whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly
Outcome/Input Ratio
in equity theory, an employee's perception of how the rewards received from an organization compare w/ the employee's contributions to that organization
Underreward
a form of inequity in which you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs than your referent is getting
Overreward
a form of inequity in which you are getting more outcomes relative to inputs than your referent
Distributive Justice
the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated
Procedural Justice
the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions
Expectancy Theory
a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards
Valence
the attractiveness or desireability of a reward or outcome
Expectancy
the perceived relationship btwn effort and performance
Instrumentality
the perceived relationship btwn performance and rewards
Reinforcement Theory
a theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently
Reinforcement
the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior
Reinforcement Contingencies
cause-and-effect relationships btwn the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences
Schedule of Reinforcement
rules that specify which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered
Positive Reinforcement
reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors w/ desirable consequences
Negative Reinforcement
reinforcement that strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a specific behavior
Punishment
reinforcement that weakens behavior by following behaviors w/ undesirable consequences
Extinction
reinforcement in which a positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weakening the behavior
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
a schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior.
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specific or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred
Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
an intermittent schedule in which consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed
Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule
an intermittent schedule in which the time btwn a behavior and the following consequences varies around a specified average
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
and intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors
Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
and intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a different number of behaviors, sometimes more and sometimes less, that vary around a specified average number of behaviors
Goal
a target, objective, or result that someone tries to accomplish
Goal Setting Theory
a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement
Goal Specificity
the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous
Goal Difficulty
the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish
Goal Acceptance
the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals
Performance Feedback
information about the quality or quantity of past performance that indicates whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal
Communication
the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another
Perception
the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments
Perceptual Filters
the personality, psychology, or experienced-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli
Selective Perception
the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent w/ our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent stimuli or information
Closure
the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent w/ what we already know
Attribution Theory
a theory that states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior
Defensive Bias
the tendency for people to perceive themselves a personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble
Fundamental Attribution Theory
the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes
Self Serving Bias
the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes)
Encoding
putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can recognized and understood by the receiver
Decoding
the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message
Feedback to Sender
in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message
Noise
anything that interferes w/ the transmission of the intended message
Jargon
vocabulary particular to a profession or group
Formal Communication Channel
the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information
Downward Communication
communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization
Upward Communication
communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization
Horizontal Communication
communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level
Informal Communication Channel (Grapevine)
the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
Coaching
communicating w/ someone for direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-job performance or behavior
Counseling
communicating w/ someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering w/ the person's performance
Nonverbal Communication
any communication that doesn't involve words
Kinesics
movements of the body and face
Paralanguage
the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (i.e. use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one's voice
Communication Medium
the method used to deliver an oral or written message
Hearing
the act or process of perceiving sounds
Listening
making a conscious effort to hear
Active Listening
assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker non-judgemental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what he or she said
Empathetic Listening
understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker
Destructive Feedback
feedback that disapproves w/out any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient
Constructive Feedback
feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging
Collaborative Discussion Sites
web or software-based discussion tools that allow employees to ask questions and share knowledge
Organizational Silence
when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues
Company Hotlines
phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management
Survey Feedback
information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement
Blog
a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments
Work Team
a small number of people w/ complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes
Cross Training
training team members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members
Social Loafing
behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
Traditional Work Group
a group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal
Employee Involvement Team
team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues
Semi-Autonomous Work Group
a group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service
Self Managing Team
a team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service
Self Designing Team
a team that has characteristics of self-mananging teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and membership
Cross Functional Team
a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization
Virtual Team
a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task
Project Team
a team created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks w/in a limited time
Norms
informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior
Cohesiveness
the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it
Forming
the first stage of team development,, in which team members meet each other, form initial impressions, and begin to establish team norms
Storming
the second stage of team development, characterized by conflict and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how it should do it
Norming
the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop
Performing
the fourth and final stage of team development, in which performance improves b/c the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team
Structural Accomodation
the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices in order to meet stretch goals
Bureacratic Immunity
the ability to make changes w/out first getting approval from managers or other parts of an organization
Individualism Collectivism
the degree to which a person believes that people should be self-sufficient and that loyalty to one's self is more important than loyalty to team or company
Team Level
the average level of ability, experience, personality, or an other factor on a team
Team Diversity
the variances or differences in ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team
Interpersonal Skills
skills, such as listening, communicating, questioning, and providing feedback, that enable people to have effective working relationships w/ others
Skill Based Pay
compensation system that pays employees for learning additional skills or knowledge
Gainsharing
a compensation system in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings, or quality, w/ their workers