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Chapter 6: Neurotransmitters and their receptors
Terms in this set (46)
a slight depolarization of a postsynaptic cell, bringing the membrane potential of that cell closer to the threshold for an action potential.
a slight hyperpolarization of the postysynaptic cell, moving the membrane potential of that cell further from threshold.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain; small molecule neurotransmitter and during brain trauma, there is an excessive release of this.
major inhibitory neurotransmitter; small molecule neurotransmitter. Degradation of this can result in the production of gamma-hydroxybutyrate the "date rape" drug. It is degraded by ------ Transaminase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.
relatively large transmitter molecules made up of short chains of amino acids, serve as neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitter derived from amino acids, and include catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine) & indolamines (histamine & serotonin)
the neurotransmitter substance that is released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions between the vagus nerve and cardiac muscle fibers. It also serves as a neurotransimitter at synapses in the ganglia of the visceral motor system and at a variety of sites within the CNS. The actions of this within the CNS are not well understood.
enzyme responsible for the production of Ach from Acetyl CoA and Choline
Co-transporter of choline into the presynaptic cell using Na+
enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine, preventing sustained muscle contraction from a single nerve impulse. Found in the synaptic cleft ensuring a rapid decrase in ACh concentration ofter its realease from the presynaptic terminal.
a highly toxic chemical nerve agent that inhibits the activity of cholinesterase; organophosphate
Chemicals such as parathion and malathion which are found in insecticides that inactivate ACHe so ACH can no longer be rapidly hydrolyzed resulting in an accumulation of ACH at the post synaptic portion of the junction.
nAChR (nicotinic ACh receptor)
Ionotropic receptor at which acetylcholine andthe drug nicotine act as ligands to activate the flow of ions through the receptor pore
a receptor protein that includes an ion channel that is opened when the receptor is bound by an appropriate ligand
An ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare; made up of large protein complexes consisting of five subunits. Neuronal ones differ from those of the muscle in that they lack sensitivity to alpha bungarotoxin and they comprise only two receptor subunit types.
mAChR (muscarinic ACh receptors)
acetylcholine g protein coupled receptor that uses the shortcut pathway, NT comes in and binds, conformational change, G protein will drop of GDP and pick up GTP, this will cause trimeric protein to split and allow potassium ion channels to open up, this causes an IPSP and will be inhibitory. Highly expressed in the striatum and various other forebrain regions (excitatory in the hippocampus)
Brings glutamine into the presynaptic terminal to be metabolized into glutamate
convert glutamine to glutamate and is a mitochondrial enzyme
the process of transfering an amino group from one compound to another (like 2-oxoglutarate of the KREBS cycle to glutamate
EAAT (excitatory amino acid transporters)
removes glutamate from synaptic cleft; transports glutamate into glial cells where it is converted to glutamine by glutamine synthase.
Glutamate taken up by astrocyte by glutamate transporter, converted to glutamine, released via glutamine transporters, diffuse back to neuron where it is converted back to glutamate and packed into synaptic vesicles
transmitter-gated glutamate receptors that open sodium channels; when it is open, produces EPSP's in the postsynaptic neuron.
kind of glutamate receptor; can act as a calcium channel and initiate the cellular changes that bring about LTP; are blocked preventing calcium entry
long-term synaptic plasticity
Persistant activity dependent increase or decrease in synaptic responses induced by different patterns of stimuli to presynaptic neuron
mGluR (metabotropic glutamate receptors )
a type of glutamate receptor which are active through an indirect metabotropic process; like all glutamate receptors, it bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter; an agonist will block an increase in glutamate release by PCP; modulate postsynaptic ion channels indirectly
glutamic acid decarboxylase
synthesizes GABA from glutamate;found in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons; requires peridoxal phosphate (which is a derivative of vitamin b6) to do this.
G-protein-linked receptors influence enzymes to induce changes in second messengers in the post-synaptic cell -> muscarinic and adrenergic receptors
synthesized from serine by serine hydroxymethltransferase. Once released from the presynaptic is is rapidly removed from the synaptic cleft by _____ trasnporters in the plasma membrane. The receptors are ligand-gated Cl- channels and the receptors can be blocked by strychnine.
A monoamine neurotransmitter involved in reward, motivation, and motor control. Found majorly in the corpus striatum. Too little = parkinsons. MAO and COMT are the two major enzymes that are involved in it's catabolism.
helps control alertness and arousal; neurotransmitter(undersupply can depress mood). Used in the locus coeruleus. Synthesis requires dopamine beta-hydroxylase (can be made from dopamine)
activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster. Is found in lower levels in the brain than other catecolamines. Found in the lateral tegmental system and the medulla. Synthesized by phenylethanolamine
a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues. Found in the neurons of the hypothalamus produced from histadine after histidine decarboxylase acts on it.
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons. Found in the raphe region of the pons and upper brainstem. Synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan 5 hydroxylase
SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
class of drugs used to relieve anxiety by limiting reuptake of a neurotransmitter
purinergic receptor ( mediate relaxation of gut smooth muscle as a response to the release of ATP) which is ionotropic; binds to ATP and ADP; opens Na and Ca channels
A neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of pain messages to the brain.
neurotransmitters. enkephalin and endorphins. substances simmilar to ------, made by the brain to minimize pain and enhance adaptive behavior.
The first protein translation products synthesized in a cell. These polypeptides are usually much larger than the final, mature peptide and often contain signal sequences that target the peptide to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by posttranslational modification (glycosylation, phosphorlation, disulfide bond formation).
enzymatic process that links saccharides to produce glycans, attached to proteins, lipids or other organic molecules
transfer of phosphate from ATP to other molecules
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
agents which inhibit pain
neuropeptide y receptor
implicated in the initiation and maintenance of feeding behavior leading to satiety or obesity.
Different to other NT, not in vesicle and synthesised on demand. Diffuse rapidly through cell membrande, and released from postsynaptic membrane. Binds CB1 receptors to reduce NT into synapse; natural, marijuana-like substances produced by the body.
gas produced by the action of nitric oxide synthase which is regulated by Ca2+ binding to calcium sensor protein calmodulin; considered a second messenger because NO actions are mediated within it's cellular targets.
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