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Bisque and Reduction Firing
Terms in this set (61)
Glaze flaw where the fired glaze has a network of cracks in it
cone to which we bisque fire
green, blue, gray (celadon glazes)
color of iron in reduction
glaze flaw resulting in the glaze peeling off the edges of the fired piece
cone to which stoneware is glaze-fired
color of copper in reduction
crack through the clay body (i.e. the pieces split in half) caused by cooling shock and/or excessive cristobalite in the body
cone to which decals, lusters, and china paint are fired
resistant to heat
glaze flaw where the glaze rolls back during the firing and exposes bare clay
cone at which we begin reduction in a glaze firing
212 degrees Fahrenheit
temperature when water turns to steam
glaze shrinks more than the clay body during cooling
cause of crazing
measures current temperature at a specific location in a kiln
hard, dense, glassy, may hold water without a glaze
overly viscous glaze, oily or dusty bisque, glaze too thick
cause of crawling
measures work-heat in a kiln
1063 degrees F
temperature of quartz inversion
clay body shrinks more than the glaze in cooking
cause of shivering
tan, brown, rust
color of iron in oxidation
451 degrees Fahrenheit
temperature of cristobalite inversion
blisters or air pockets that occured during firing in the wall of the clay piece
color of copper in oxidation
kiln atmosphere where it is in between oxidation and reduction, characterized by green backpressure flames
kiln atmosphere where there is more fuel than air to burn it completely
kiln atmosphere where there is more air than fuel and the fuel burns cleanly
shape of a reducing flame
shape of an oxidizing flame
color of an oxidizing flame
06 - one cone lower
When you use a cone 05 in a kiln sitter, what visual cone should be melted to 3 o'clock in a visual cone pack?
when to begin reduction
What the lower cone pack in a reduction firing is used to indicate
when the body and glaze are mature
what the higher cone pack in a reduction firing indicates
color of a reducing flame
To create a reducing kiln atmosphere, how would you adjust the kiln damper?
To create a reducing kiln atmospere, how you adjust the gas pressure?
To change the kiln from a reducing to oxidizing atmosphere, how would you adjust the gas pressure?
Name for a type of kiln that has the flue in the top of the kiln
To change the kiln from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere, how would you adjust the damper?
To change the kiln from a reducing to oxidizing atmosphere, how would you adjust the blower on a forced-air kiln?
Name for a type of kiln that has the flue in the bottom of the kiln, like our Geil
term for the part of the kiln where the flame is
term for the row of brick between the flames and ware
011, 010, 09, 4
Numbers of the cones in the lower cone pack for reduction firing, in the order in which they will melt
6, 8, 9, 10
Numbers of the cones in the higher cone pack for reduction firing, in the order in which they will melt
explodes, then you have to stop the kiln, unload, clean up the cone pack shards, and reload with new cone packs
What happens if you fire with a cone pack that isn't dry?
open the damper some to draw in more secondary air and let the heat rise faster
In an updraft kiln, how would you adjust the damper if the bottom was hotter than the top?
close the damper a bit to reduce the draw and allow the heat to build toward the top
In a downdraft kiln like the Geil, how would you adjust the damper if the bottom was hotter than the top?
Iron reduces to grey color, and is protected from re-oxidation by glaze. Bare clay re-oxidizes in cooling.
Why is stoneware clay grey under glaze but toasty orange-brown on the foot?
paper burns at a temperature close to cristobalite inversion
The significance of checking if a kiln is cool enough to unload by seeing if paper burns at a peep hole is...
free silica becomes cristobalite at about 1950 degrees F, Cristobalite changes size + or - 2% at about 451 degrees F
What is cristobalite inversion?
Kiln wash is applied to the tops of the shelves so it will release any glaze drips after firing without damaging the shelf.
Where is kiln wash applied and why?
Name for the kind of water that evaporates or is driven off below 212 degrees F
turn up the timer, push in the button
After you place the cone in the kiln sitter, what else to you need to do?
Raise trip lever, lower the claw and hold it down, on the inside insert a cone parallel to the kiln wall in the middle of the holder with flat side down
Name the first 3 steps in setting a kiln sitter
name for the kind of water that is driven off between 600 - 1000 degrees F
Term for heating a kiln slowly in the initial stage of firing
Position of the kiln lid during early heating in a computer-controlled kiln
Name of the foundation that makes cones in America
Name of the man who invented cones
Name of the man who invented the kiln sitter
Term for the flames coming out of the kiln damper and peep holes during reduction and neutral atmospheres
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