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70 terms

GOV 310 exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
1994/2010 Republican Policy Plans
1994- contract to America
2010- pledge to America
Agenda Setting
the media affect the issues and problems people think about, even if the media do not determine what positions people adopt
CNN effect
purported ability to TV to raise a foreign tragedy to national prominence by broadcasting vivid pictures
Carmines and Stimson
-Issue evolutions are issues capable of altering the political environment within which they originated and evolved
-"These issues capture the public's attention for more than a short span of time; they tend to be salient for a number of year."
-"They may result in voting defections among partisans, but more important, they also alter the fundamental link btw citizen and party."
Celebrities and Politics
athletes, actors, astronauts myriad of celebrities been elected to America
-don't need to know politics to be in politics
National Republican Party Chairperson
Reince Priebus
National Democratic Party Chairperson
Tim Kaine
Republican Party of TX Chairman
Steve Munisteri
Democratic Party of TX Chairman
Boyd Richie
David Leege
Identity: religion tells us who we are and who I am
Norms: religion tells us how we ought to behave
Boundary-maintenance: religion tells us who or what behaviors are not "of us"
Direct action
everything from peaceful sit-ins and demonstrations to riots and even rebellion
Fairness doctrine
FCC regulation, enforced between 1949-1987, that required stations to air contrasting viewpoints on matters of public importance and to give public figures who had been criticized on any of the station's programs a free opportunity to reply
Framing
the way in which opinions about an issue can be altered by emphasizing/de-emphasizing particular facets of that issue
Free-Rider Problem
problem that arises when people can enjoy the benefits of group activity without bearing any of the costs
• Overcoming free rider problem- there needs to be an incentive to join the organization; the solution is to provide benefits to not free ride
Last Democrat to be TX gov
Ann Richards
First Republican to be TX gov
Edwin Davis
First Democrat to be TX gov
Hogg
Hatch Act
the act stopped federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity, like pledging allegiance to a political party; this is for civil servants, not just elected officials; because they continue on through multiple administrations, so if they were partisan it would be a problem; any federal position that doesn't have turnover on each election
Heuristics
mental shortcuts that allow individuals to make decisions without a great deal of information; Individuals use cues to help them make decisions without a great deal of information
Interest group
organization or association of people with common interests that engages in politics on behalf of its members
Issue evolution
slide in lecture; Def: issues capable of altering the political environment within which they originated and evolved
-the notion of abortion as an easy issue has changed over time
Issue public
a group of people particularly affected by, or concerned with, a specific issue
Lobbying
interest-group activities intended to influence directly the decisions that public officials make
Grassroots lobbying
attempts by groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly through their constituents
Luthia and Filpott
media lecture slide- has to do with internet and political interests; theory that internet can increase public awareness in politics- the internet is useful for people to consume information; a website can change someones views if they like the site
• post at minimum cost an array for people to post and consume political related info. Viewing a website can increase political interest
Majority-Minority District
district in which a minority group is the numerical majority of the population
Material incentives
such incentives are economic rather than social; hope to gain
Four ways to measure public opinion
Online surveys, random digit dialing, telephone polls, and focus groups
Minimal effects thesis
theory that mass media has little or no effect on public opinion; directly in contrast to many findings; McQuail is completely at odds with this
Political action committee (PAC)
specialized organization for raising and spending campaign funds; often affiliated with an interest group or association
Political parties
groups of like-minded people who band together in an attempt to take control of government. Parties represent the primary connection between ordinary citizens and the public officials they elect
Priming
the media affect the standards people use to evaluate political figures or the severity of a problem
Association
in lecture- related to interest groups; there are political groups that are active in govt & politics that aren't as formal as Congress, etc.
• when you join an association, you get what?: i.e. what are the incentives of joining an association
Public goods
goods enjoyed simultaneously by a group, as opposed to a private good that must be divided up to be shared
Purposive benefits
people are committed to and wish to advance the group's political goals
Realignment
shift occurring when the pattern of group support for political parties changes in a significant and lasting way
• example: when the white South moved from supporting Dems to Reps, like Dixiecrats and Strom Thurmond
Sampling error
the chance variation that arises in public opinion surveys as a result of using a representative, but small, sample to estimate the characteristics of a larger population
• when you take a survey of 1500 people, and its not an exact representation of the population; there is a slight error; there is a "margin" of error i.e. this survey has a 3% margin of error of the population, 95% of the time
Selective benefits
specific private goods that an organization provides only to its contributing members
Single-member, simple-plurality (SMSP) system
electoral system in which the country is divided into geographic districts, and the candidates who win the most votes within their districts are elected
• one person is elected for one district; form of representation; one of the reason that third parties have a hard time winning, because if only one person gets elected, even if you have like 30% of the vote you get no representation
• alt. ProportionalRepresentation forms of representation. If you get 45% of vote then country is run by 45% of vote; winner takes all
Political Socialization
the end result of all the processes by which social groups give individuals their beliefs and values
Subgovernment
alliance of a congressional committee, an executive agency, and a small number of allied interest groups that combine to dominate policy making in some specified policy area
Simpsons
two candidates for office; demonstrates that there is a potential electoral problem with the two-party system
Types of media
New media: cable and satellite TV, fax, email and the Internet—the media that have grown out of the technological advances of the past few decades
V.O. Key on Southern Partisanship
southern partisanship- schizophrenic- republicans southern people vote in national level, vote democratic in local levels; strategic behavior in voting
V.O. Key on public opinion
efined by those opinions held by private persons that government find it prudent to heed"
Voting eligible population
voting-age population with groups such as felons and noncitizens subtracted
Voting-age population: all people in the US over the age of 18, including those who may not be legally eligible to vote
STATE DETERMINE VOTER ELIGIBILITY
Yellow Journalism
newspapers fun by parties
Cueing
trying to feed in a viewpoint that you already have
Hard and easy issues
-Hard issues presume that voting is the result of a sophisticated decision calculus
-Easy issues are issues so ingrained over a long period of time it structures voters "gut responses" to candidates and political parties
Hard issues require though, easy issues don't
-easy issue would be symbolic rather than technical
"Motor Voter" Law
most states now allow people to register while applying for a driver's license, library card, or welfare check; little change in voter turnout
Persuasive message
an argument or image that provides a reason for taking a point of view
Jimmy MacMillan
video; all you need to know is that you need to draw a connection between his role as a third party candidate, and his effectiveness or lack thereof in the election; in terms of electoral votes
Ross Perot
-reform party
Ralph Nader
-green party
theodore roosevelt
allowed Woodrow Wilson to beat Taft in 1912
Strom Thurmond
-dixiecrats
George Wallace
Independent party
Political knowledge
the political church was an example of how political knowledge can be transferred outside of formal bodies like the govt
Know what groups have increased political knowledge i.e. age, money, education etc.
Ideology
a system of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individual's views on a wide range of particular issues
-Political philosophy; doesn't necessarily mean R/D, more like conservative/liberal
Information cost
the time and mental effort required to absorb and store information, whether from conversations, personal experiences, or the media
15th amendment
voting rights for black men
19th amendment
voting rights for women in 1920
23rd amendment
gave Wash DC residents the right to vote for presidential elections
24th amendment
outlawed poll taxes
26th amendment
set voting age at 18
Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton
Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates
Attorney General
Eric Holder
Secretary of Homeland Security
Janet Napolitano
Godfather of Go-Go
Chuck Brown