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1994/2010 Republican Policy Plans

1994- contract to America
2010- pledge to America

Agenda Setting

the media affect the issues and problems people think about, even if the media do not determine what positions people adopt

CNN effect

purported ability to TV to raise a foreign tragedy to national prominence by broadcasting vivid pictures

Carmines and Stimson

-Issue evolutions are issues capable of altering the political environment within which they originated and evolved
-"These issues capture the public's attention for more than a short span of time; they tend to be salient for a number of year."
-"They may result in voting defections among partisans, but more important, they also alter the fundamental link btw citizen and party."

Celebrities and Politics

athletes, actors, astronauts myriad of celebrities been elected to America
-don't need to know politics to be in politics

National Republican Party Chairperson

Reince Priebus

National Democratic Party Chairperson

Tim Kaine

Republican Party of TX Chairman

Steve Munisteri

Democratic Party of TX Chairman

Boyd Richie

David Leege

Identity: religion tells us who we are and who I am
Norms: religion tells us how we ought to behave
Boundary-maintenance: religion tells us who or what behaviors are not "of us"

Direct action

everything from peaceful sit-ins and demonstrations to riots and even rebellion

Fairness doctrine

FCC regulation, enforced between 1949-1987, that required stations to air contrasting viewpoints on matters of public importance and to give public figures who had been criticized on any of the station's programs a free opportunity to reply


the way in which opinions about an issue can be altered by emphasizing/de-emphasizing particular facets of that issue

Free-Rider Problem

problem that arises when people can enjoy the benefits of group activity without bearing any of the costs
• Overcoming free rider problem- there needs to be an incentive to join the organization; the solution is to provide benefits to not free ride

Last Democrat to be TX gov

Ann Richards

First Republican to be TX gov

Edwin Davis

First Democrat to be TX gov


Hatch Act

the act stopped federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity, like pledging allegiance to a political party; this is for civil servants, not just elected officials; because they continue on through multiple administrations, so if they were partisan it would be a problem; any federal position that doesn't have turnover on each election


mental shortcuts that allow individuals to make decisions without a great deal of information; Individuals use cues to help them make decisions without a great deal of information

Interest group

organization or association of people with common interests that engages in politics on behalf of its members

Issue evolution

slide in lecture; Def: issues capable of altering the political environment within which they originated and evolved
-the notion of abortion as an easy issue has changed over time

Issue public

a group of people particularly affected by, or concerned with, a specific issue


interest-group activities intended to influence directly the decisions that public officials make

Grassroots lobbying

attempts by groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly through their constituents

Luthia and Filpott

media lecture slide- has to do with internet and political interests; theory that internet can increase public awareness in politics- the internet is useful for people to consume information; a website can change someones views if they like the site
• post at minimum cost an array for people to post and consume political related info. Viewing a website can increase political interest

Majority-Minority District

district in which a minority group is the numerical majority of the population

Material incentives

such incentives are economic rather than social; hope to gain

Four ways to measure public opinion

Online surveys, random digit dialing, telephone polls, and focus groups

Minimal effects thesis

theory that mass media has little or no effect on public opinion; directly in contrast to many findings; McQuail is completely at odds with this

Political action committee (PAC)

specialized organization for raising and spending campaign funds; often affiliated with an interest group or association

Political parties

groups of like-minded people who band together in an attempt to take control of government. Parties represent the primary connection between ordinary citizens and the public officials they elect


the media affect the standards people use to evaluate political figures or the severity of a problem


in lecture- related to interest groups; there are political groups that are active in govt & politics that aren't as formal as Congress, etc.
• when you join an association, you get what?: i.e. what are the incentives of joining an association

Public goods

goods enjoyed simultaneously by a group, as opposed to a private good that must be divided up to be shared

Purposive benefits

people are committed to and wish to advance the group's political goals


shift occurring when the pattern of group support for political parties changes in a significant and lasting way
• example: when the white South moved from supporting Dems to Reps, like Dixiecrats and Strom Thurmond

Sampling error

the chance variation that arises in public opinion surveys as a result of using a representative, but small, sample to estimate the characteristics of a larger population
• when you take a survey of 1500 people, and its not an exact representation of the population; there is a slight error; there is a "margin" of error i.e. this survey has a 3% margin of error of the population, 95% of the time

Selective benefits

specific private goods that an organization provides only to its contributing members

Single-member, simple-plurality (SMSP) system

electoral system in which the country is divided into geographic districts, and the candidates who win the most votes within their districts are elected
• one person is elected for one district; form of representation; one of the reason that third parties have a hard time winning, because if only one person gets elected, even if you have like 30% of the vote you get no representation
• alt. ProportionalRepresentation forms of representation. If you get 45% of vote then country is run by 45% of vote; winner takes all

Political Socialization

the end result of all the processes by which social groups give individuals their beliefs and values


alliance of a congressional committee, an executive agency, and a small number of allied interest groups that combine to dominate policy making in some specified policy area


two candidates for office; demonstrates that there is a potential electoral problem with the two-party system

Types of media

New media: cable and satellite TV, fax, email and the Internet—the media that have grown out of the technological advances of the past few decades

V.O. Key on Southern Partisanship

southern partisanship- schizophrenic- republicans southern people vote in national level, vote democratic in local levels; strategic behavior in voting

V.O. Key on public opinion

efined by those opinions held by private persons that government find it prudent to heed"

Voting eligible population

voting-age population with groups such as felons and noncitizens subtracted
Voting-age population: all people in the US over the age of 18, including those who may not be legally eligible to vote

Yellow Journalism

newspapers fun by parties


trying to feed in a viewpoint that you already have

Hard and easy issues

-Hard issues presume that voting is the result of a sophisticated decision calculus
-Easy issues are issues so ingrained over a long period of time it structures voters "gut responses" to candidates and political parties
Hard issues require though, easy issues don't
-easy issue would be symbolic rather than technical

"Motor Voter" Law

most states now allow people to register while applying for a driver's license, library card, or welfare check; little change in voter turnout

Persuasive message

an argument or image that provides a reason for taking a point of view

Jimmy MacMillan

video; all you need to know is that you need to draw a connection between his role as a third party candidate, and his effectiveness or lack thereof in the election; in terms of electoral votes

Ross Perot

-reform party

Ralph Nader

-green party

theodore roosevelt

allowed Woodrow Wilson to beat Taft in 1912

Strom Thurmond


George Wallace

Independent party

Political knowledge

the political church was an example of how political knowledge can be transferred outside of formal bodies like the govt
Know what groups have increased political knowledge i.e. age, money, education etc.


a system of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individual's views on a wide range of particular issues
-Political philosophy; doesn't necessarily mean R/D, more like conservative/liberal

Information cost

the time and mental effort required to absorb and store information, whether from conversations, personal experiences, or the media

15th amendment

voting rights for black men

19th amendment

voting rights for women in 1920

23rd amendment

gave Wash DC residents the right to vote for presidential elections

24th amendment

outlawed poll taxes

26th amendment

set voting age at 18

Secretary of State

Hillary Clinton

Secretary of Defense

Robert Gates

Attorney General

Eric Holder

Secretary of Homeland Security

Janet Napolitano

Godfather of Go-Go

Chuck Brown

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