Civil Rights (3/26/20)

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What 2 main occurrences related to the Segregation System POST CIVIL WAR
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Terms in this set (42)
- Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed segreation
*1883, all white Supreme Court declares the Civil Rights Act unconstitutional
- 1896, Plessy v. Ferguson ruling:
*says separate but equal constitutional
*many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races
*Facilities for blacks always infereior to those for whites
- There was resistance to school desegregation
* Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate
* Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist
- 1955, Court hands "Brown II" - orders desegregation at "all deliberate speed"
* the court delegated the task of carrying out school desegregation to district courts
- Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible .... until....
- Since 1948, Arkansas integrated state university, private groups
- Gov. Faunus has Naitonal Guard turn away black students
- Elizabeth Eckford faces abusive crowd when she tries to enter school
- Eisenhower has national guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance
- African-American students harassed at school all year
- 1957 Civil Rights Act - federal government power over schools, voting
What happened during the Montgomery Bus Boycott?- Walking for Justice - African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk - Get support from black community, outside groups, sympathetic whitesWhat ended the Montgomery Bus Boycott?Broader v. Gayle (1956) outlaws bus segregation in Alabama, the boycott officially ended 12/20/56, (after 381 days)How did Martin Luther King plan to combat racism and what organization (with others) did her found?- MLK believed that you could change the world with nonviolent resistance "soul force", which took the form of Civil disobedience, and massive demonstrations. -MLK remained nonviolent even in the face of violence after Brown decision - MLK founded, with others, the grassroots organization Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)What organization was an offshoot of MLK's SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference), and why did its members break off from the SCLC to form the new organization?Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), formed by some African-American students who, by 1960, thought pace of change too slowWhat actions did the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) take, spreading the civil rights movement?- in demonstrating for freedom, SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy - influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to use sit-ins: Refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until servedWhere was the first national sit-in, where did it spread to, and what happened as a result in late 1960?- Sit-ins were when protestors (many members of the SNCC , or Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) - First sit-in was at Greensboro, NC's Woolworth (a department store) and it was shown nationwide on TV - In spite of abuse, arrest, movement grows, and spreads to the North - Late in 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 statesWhat was COREOrganization called the Congress of Racial equality Organized in 1942, became one of the leading African American civil rights organizaitonsWhat were CORE's Freedom Rides? And what happened?- in 1961, CORE. Tests the Court decision banning interstate bus segregation - organized "FREEDOM RIDERS" - blacks, whites sit, use station facilities together - Riders were brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus was firebombed - Bus companies then would refuse to continue carrying CORE freedom ridersWhat happened when the bus companies refused to continue carrying the CORE freedom riders?- SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) volunteers from Tennessee replace CORE riders; and they are violently stopped - Robert Kennedy pressured bus companies to continue transporting ridersHow did state & federal officials/ public respond to violence against the Freedom Riders?- Alabama state officials don't give promised protection to the freedom riders; and mobs attacked riders - Newspapers throughout the nation denounce beatings - JFK sends 400 US Marshals to protect riders - Attorney General, Interstate Commerce Commission act to BAN SEGREGATION IN ALL INTERSTATE TRAVEL FACILITIESIntegrating Ole Miss (aka University of Mississippi)- 1962, federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at University of Mississippi - Governor (of Mississippi) Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith register - JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrar's office - Barnett (the Governor!!) makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot - Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parentsWhat does SNCC stand for and what does SCLC stand for?SNCC = Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SCLC = Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceCivil Rights movement moves to Birmingham (AL)- April 1963, SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham - MLK arrested, writes "Letter from Birmingham Jail" - TV news show police attacking child marchers - fire hoses, dogs, clubs - continued protests, economic boycott, and bad press end segregationDesegregation of University of Alabama-JFK (John F Kennedy - president) sent troops to force Governor Wallace of AL to desegregate University of AlabamaWho was Medgar Evers-NAACP leader in Mississippi who was murdered -hung juries led to the the killer's releaseMarch to Washington, when where why who-August 1963, over 250 people converge on Washington -Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill - King gives "I Have a Dream" speechviolence in Birmingham after the march in Washington- September 4, Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into churchCivil Rights Act of 1964- Signed by Pres. LBJ (Lyndon B. Johnson), prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, genderFighting for Voting Rights - what was Freedom Summer, aka Voter Education Program- Freedom Summer - CORE, SNCC project to register blacks to vote in Mississippi - Volunteers beaten, killed; businesses, homes, church burnedWhat was the new Political Party formed int he Fight for Voting Rights, who was it's leader/"voice", and what did LBJ (pres) do?- MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC PARTY (MFDP) formed to get seat in Mississippi party - FANNIE LOU HAMER - voice of the MFDP at the National Convention - wins supports - LBJ fears losing Southern white vote, pressure leaders to compromise - MFDP and SNCC supporters feel betrayedThe Selma Campaign to Fight for Voting Rights- 1965, voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma Alabama - MLK leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them - Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25k peopleVoting Rights Act of 1965 what does it do, and what is its effect- Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of 1965 - Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enrol voters - Increases black voter enrollmentAfrican Americans Seek Greater Equality through Northern Segregation- De facto (in fact) serration exists by practice, custom; problem in North - De June segregation is segregation by law (Jim Crow); in the South - WWII black migration to Northern cities results in "white flight" - 1960s, most urban blacks live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances - Black unemployment twice as high as white - Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officersUrban Violence erupted as African Americans Sought Greater Equality- Mid 1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians - Many result in riots - Many whites baffled by American-American rage (idk if she meant African-American rage here?) - Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, and education - Money for the War on Poverty & Great Society redirected to the Vietnam War - Detroit Race Riot (1967)New Leaders (e.g. Malcom X) Voice Discontent and strive for African-American Solidarity- Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocates blacks separate from whites because believe that whites are the source of black problems - Malcom X - controversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity - Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black MuslimsMalcolm X's change- Malcolm X, controversial Muslim leader, initially had a hatred of whites, and advocated violence out of necessity (one way he was different than MLK who believed in peaceful resistance) - after Malcom X made a pilgrimage to Mecca in April 1964, he changed his attitude from hatred for whites to a universal brotherhood - Malcom X splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving a speechBlack Power movement (as New Leaders Voice Discontent)- CORE, SNCC become more militant: SCLC pursue traditional tactics - Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power - African-Americans control their own lives, communities, without whites - Panthers (New Leaders Voice Discontent)- Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self-sufficiently - Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; having violent confrontations with police - Provided social services in ghettos, win popular supportLeading up to Martin Luther King's Death- King (MLK) objects to Black Power movement, preaching of violence (remember MLK believed in change through a peaceful nonviolent movement) - King seems to sense his own death in Memphis speech to striking workers - he is shot; dies the following day, April 4, 1968Reaction to King's death- MLK's death leads to worst urban rioting in US history - over 100 cities affected - Robert Kennedy assassinated 2 months later (Robert or "Bobby" Kennedy was JFK's brother and a beloved leader)Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement: Causes of Violence and its Gains of the MovementCAUSES OF VIOLENCE - Kerner Commission names racism as a main cause of urban violence CIVIL RIGHTS GAINS - Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing - More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs - Greater pride in racial identity leaders to Black Studies programs - More African-American participation in movies, television - Increased voter registration results in more black elected officialsLegacy of the Civil Rights Movement: Unfinished Work and Affirmative ActionUNFINISHED WORK - Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support - White flight reverses much progress toward school integration - Unemployment, poverty higher then for whites AFFIRMATIVE ACTION - extra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups - 1960s, colleges companies doing government business adopt policy - Late 1970s, some criticize policy as reverse discrimination