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53 terms

microbiology

STUDY
PLAY
All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called
catabolism.
redox reactions.
phosphorylation.
metabolism.
cellular respiration.
metabolism
The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of
anabolism.
catabolism.
phosphorylation.
fermentation.
biosynthesis.
catabolism
3. Enzymes are
broken down in reactions that require energy input.
proteins that function as catalysts.
electron carrier molecules.
not needed for catabolic reactions.
All of the choices are correct.
proteins that function as catalysts
4. Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called
anabolism.
phosphorylation.
fermentation.
exergonic.
glycolysis.
anabolism
5. An apoenzyme
is part of a simple enzyme.
is also called a coenzyme.
contains the active site.
is often an inorganic metal ion.
is an RNA molecule.
contains the active site
6. A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called
substrates.
apoenzymes.
catalysts.
cofactors.
None of the choices are correct
cofactors
Important components of coenzymes are
vitamins.
metallic ions.
active sites.
substrates.
ribozymes.
vitamins
8. Enzymes that are produced only when substrate is present are termed
exoenzymes.
endoenzymes.
constitutive enzymes.
induced enzymes.
conjugated enzymes.
induced enzymes
9. Enzymes that catalyze removing electrons from one substrate and adding electrons to another are called
phosphotransferases.
oxidoreductases.
decarboxylases.
aminotransferases.
ligases.
oxidoreductases
10. When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product this control is called
negative feedback.
competitive inhibition.
enzyme induction.
enzyme repression.
None of the choices are correct.
negative feedback
11. Most electron carriers are
coenzymes.
enzymes.
hydrogens.
inorganic phosphate.
All of the choices are correct.
coenzymes
12. Exergonic reactions
include synthesis of large carbohydrates.
only occur in heterotrophs.
occur during aerobic cellular respiration.
do not occur in anaerobic cellular respiration.
occur when ADP binds to inorganic phosphate to form ATP.
occur during aerobic cellular respiration
13. In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate
ATP.
ADP.
pyruvic acid.
oxygen.
NAD.
ADP
14. The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is
mitochondria.
within the cell membrane.
lysosomes.
cytoplasm.
outside of the cell.
outside of the cell
15. All of the following are exoenzymes except
ATP synthase.
streptokinase.
penicillinase.
collagenase.
elastase.
ATP synthase
16. All of the following pertain to glycolysis except it
occurs without oxygen.
ends with formation of pyruvic acid.
occurs during fermentation.
degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O.
involves reduction of NAD.
degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O.
17. The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins
glycolysis.
electron transport system.
Krebs cycle.
fermentation.
oxidative phosphorylation.
krebs cycle
18. During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is
pyruvic acid.
oxygen.
nitrate.
cytochrome c.
FAD.
oxygen
19. Which of the following is NOT involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the TCA cycle?
reduction of NAD
decarboxylation of pyruvic acid
coenzyme A attaches to an acetyl group
dehydrogenation of pyruvic acid
pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
20. In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the
cell membrane.
mitochondria.
chloroplasts.
ribosomes.
cytoplasm.
cell membrane
21. In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
electron transport system
Krebs cycle
glycolysis
alcoholic fermentation
mixed acid fermentation
Krebs cycle
22. The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.
pyruvic acid
ATP
NAD
NADH
glucose
NAD
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
electron transport
Krebs cycle
glycolysis
processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycle
All phases produce the same number of ATP molecules.
electron transport
24. In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, how many ATP are generated?
2 ATP
3 ATP
24 ATP
36 ATP
38 ATP
38 ATP
25. When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated?
2 ATP
3 ATP
24 ATP
36 ATP
38 ATP
2 ATP
26. Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
2
3
24
36
38
3
27. As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.
ATP
phosphate
hydrogen ions
oxygen
NADH
hydrogen ions
28. Mixed acid fermentation
produces butyric acid.
occurs in all bacteria.
produces acids plus CO2 and H2 gases.
is seen in Streptococcus and Lactobacillus.
also produces ethanol.
produces acids plus CO2 and H2 gases.
29. Anaerobic cellular respiration
is also called fermentation.
only involves glycolysis.
does not generate ATP.
utilizes an electron transport system.
uses the same final electron acceptors as aerobic respiration.
utilizes an electron transport system
30. Each FADH2 that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
2
3
24
36
38
2
31. In anaerobic respiration, all of the following can serve as the final electron acceptor except
oxygen.
sulfate.
nitrite.
None of the choices are correct.
oxygen
32. Enteric bacteria commonly occupy the human intestine and primarily produce
CO2 and H2 gasses.
methane gas.
lactic acid.
alcohol.
butyric acid.
CO2 and H2 gasses
33. The process of alcoholic fermentation produces
alcohol only.
alcohol and oxygen.
alcohol and carbon dioxide.
carbon dioxide and yeast.
yeast and oxygen.
alcohol and carbon dioxide
34. Fatty acids can be metabolized by entering
glycolysis.
the TCA cycle.
the electron transport chain.
the phosphogluconate pathway.
lactic acid fermentation.
the TCA cycle
35. Enzymes that are regularly found in a cell are termed
exoenzymes.
endoenzymes.
constitutive enzymes.
induced enzymes.
conjugated enzymes.
constitutive enzymes
36. When amino acids are deaminated, they can be used as a source of
glucose.
fat.
vitamins.
minerals.
carbon.
glucose
37. In eukaryotes, glycolysis takes place
in the mitochondria.
in the endoplasmic reticulum.
in the cell membrane.
in the nucleus.
in the cytoplasm.
in the cytoplasm
38. In eukaryotes, the Krebs cycle takes place
in the nucleus.
in the endoplasmic reticulum.
in the cell membrane.
in the mitochondria.
in the cytoplasm.
in the mitochondria
39. ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.
True
False
false
40. Hydrolysis reactions are catabolic reactions that use water to split the reactant into smaller subunits.
True
False
true
41. ATP synthase is a complex enzyme needed for oxidative phosphorylation.
True
False
true
42. Only yeast produces alcohol as a fermentation product.
True
False
false
43. Facultative anaerobes can utilize aerobic cellular respiration when oxygen is present and fermentation when oxygen is in low supply.
True
False
true
44. All aerobic bacterial species have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport systems.
True
False
false
45. ATP is composed of deoxyribose, adenine, and 3 phosphate groups.
True
False
false
46. Building block molecules for biosynthetic pathways come from the cell's catabolic pathways and from the environment.
True
False
true
47. The cell's metabolic reactions involve the participation of _____ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction.
enzymes
FAD, NADP, NAD, and coenzyme A are all _____ carriers.
electron
49. The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are the _____.
cytochromes
50. Each FADH2 from the Kerbs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATP's.
2
51. Metabolic pathways that are bidirectional are called _____ pathways.
amphibolic
52. _____ enzymes have an active site, and an additional regulatory site for non-substrate attachment
allosteric
53. Amination is the addition of a/an _____ group to a carbon skeleton.
amino