MAP 6 - Respiratory System

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What area in the brain sets the respiratory rhythm?
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During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?epinephrine (Yes, during an allergic reaction, there is increased resistance in the bronchioles and epinephrine dilates the bronchioles, thus making it easier to breathe. Epinephrine is released from the adrenal gland during stressful situations. People with severe allergies carry an EpiPen in case the allergic reaction produces anaphylaxis.)If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?lungs will collapse (Yes, the transpulmonary pressure creates the suction that keeps the lungs inflated. When room air enters the pleural space, transpulmonary pressure is zero and the lungs deflate - this is known as a pneumothorax.)Concept Map: Respiratory Volumes - to explain and compare the various lung volumes and capacities.answer in image:Concept Map: Respiratory Volumes - answer the following questions related to the concept map... This lung volume CANNOT be directly measured using a spirometer.residual volume (Residual volume refers to the amount of air left in the lungs after a tidal expiration.)Concept Map: Respiratory Volumes - answer the following questions related to the concept map... Which lung volume tends to be the largest in healthy male and female adults?inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) (In most healthy adults, inspiratory reserve volume is greater than tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.)Concept Map: Respiratory Volumes - answer the following questions related to the concept map... A patient with a restrictive lung disease such as tuberculosis is likely to see an increase in his or her __________.breathing rate (Restrictive lung diseases decrease vital capacity, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume. To provide adequate ventilation, the alveolar ventilation rate must increase.)Concept Map: Respiratory Volumes - answer the following questions related to the concept map... Which of the following behaviors would most likely result in an increased alveolar ventilation rate as compared to that of normal breathing?slow, deep breathing (Slow breathing provides adequate time for gases to pass into the alveoli, while breathing deeply increases the number of alveoli being utilized. The combination of these factors increases effective ventilation, or alveolar ventilation rate.)Focus Figure 22.1 : The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve Part A - Hemoglobin Saturation... Focus your attention on the graph shown, from the left side of the Focus Figure. The percent of O2O2 saturation of hemoglobin is plotted (on the y-axis) against PO2PO2 (mm Hg) (on the x-axis). Use this graph to complete Parts A-C below. On this graph, the y-axis (the vertical edge) tells you how much O2O2 is bound to hemoglobin (Hb). At 100%, each Hb molecule has four bound oxygen molecules. The x-axis (the horizontal edge) tells you the relative amount (partial pressure) of O2O2 dissolved in the fluid surrounding the Hb. If more O2O2 is present, more O2O2 is bound. However, because of Hb's properties (O2O2 binding strength changes with saturation), this is an S-shaped curve, not a straight line.Which of the following represents a correct statement about data presented in the graph? In blood with a PO2PO2 of 30 mm Hg, the average saturation of all hemoglobin proteins is 60%. (Cooperative binding of oxygen to an individual hemoglobin protein occurs with one oxygen per hemoglobin representing 25% saturation; two oxygens per hemoglobin, 50%; three oxygens per hemoglobin, 75%; and four oxygens per hemoglobin, 100% saturation. Only collectively with all hemoglobins can there be percentages in between, as seen in the S-shaped curve graph of saturation plotted against PO2PO2 of blood.)Part B - Hemoglobin Saturation Using the same graph as in Part A, What is the average number of oxygens bound to hemoglobin at a saturation of 50%?two (Binding of oxygen to an individual hemoglobin protein occurs at one oxygen per hemoglobin representing 25% saturation; two oxygens per hemoglobin, 50%; three oxygens per hemoglobin, 75%; and four oxygens per hemoglobin, 100% saturation. If an average of two oxygens are bound in all hemoglobins collectively, there is 50% saturation, shown at a blood).Part C - Hemoglobin Saturation Using the graph in Part A as reference, Drag the correct value item of PO2 mm Hg to the correct target molecule of hemoglobin. Remember that the y-axis indicates how much O2 is bound to hemoglobin.PO2 0 mm Hg: No bound O2 PO2 15 mm Hg: One bound O2 PO2 25 mm Hg: Two bound O2 PO2 40 mm Hg: Three bound O2 PO2 100 mm Hg: Four bound O2Part D - Hemoglobin Saturation in the Lungs Focus your attention on the graph shown, from the top right box, "In the lungs," of the Focus Figure. Drag and drop the numerical terms to the appropriate blank target locations in the sentences.The PO2 in the lungs at sea level is PO2 of ~100 mm Hg. The saturation of hemoglobin in the lungs at sea level is ~98 O2 saturation at PO2 ~100 mm Hg. The saturation of hemoglobin in the lungs at high altitude of PO2 ~80 mm Hg is ~95% O2 saturation. The saturation of hemoglobin in the lungs at an altitude representing PO2 ~60 mm Hg is closest to ~90% O2 saturation. The PO2 in the lungs at high altitude is PO2 of ~80 mm Hg.Part E - Comparison of Oxygen Binding in Resting and Metabolic Tissue Focus your attention on the graph shown, from the lower right box, "In the tissues," of the Focus Figure. Sort the correct pressures into the appropriate bins that represent tissue descriptions. Each bin should contain a value for PO2 and a value for Hb.answer in image: Resting Tissue = PO2 ~40 mm Hg, Hb ~75% O2 saturation Metabolically Active tissue = PO2 ~20 mm Hg, Hb ~40% O2 saturation Neither = PO2 ~30 mm Hg, Hb ~50% O2 saturationPart F - Conclusion: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve Focus your attention again on Focus Figure 22.1. A firefighter breathes in air normally as he enters a building following an explosion and fire. He has a meter that predicts the PO2PO2 will approximate 15 mm Hg in his tissue fluids as he actively moves about the room.The firefighter's hemoglobin saturation will be about one oxygen per hemoglobin, and he will require an external air tank. (An O2 saturation of hemoglobin of ~25% is insufficient for the firefighter moving about the room, and he should use external oxygen.)BioFlix Quiz: Gas Exchange During inhalation, ____________________.the diaphragm and rib muscles contract. (The contraction of these muscles causes air to enter the lungs.)BioFlix Quiz: Gas Exchange From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?Alveoli (Alveoli are tiny sacs in the lungs surrounded by capillaries. The alveoli are where oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood.)BioFlix Quiz: Gas Exchange Which statement is correct?In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells. (When oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the surrounding capillaries, it enters a red blood cell and binds to hemoglobin.)BioFlix Quiz: Gas Exchange After blood becomes oxygenated, returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.BioFlix Quiz: Gas Exchange Hemoglobin, a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.Career Connections Video: The Respiratory System Chronic bronchitis is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, in smokers. What is the other main component of this disease?emphysemaCareer Connections Video: The Respiratory System Viral sinusitis may be caused by a direct extension of an upper respiratory infection involving the __________.pharynxBuilding Vocabulary Activity: The Respiratory System Part A - Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixesanswer in image:Building Vocabulary Activity: The Respiratory System Part B - Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixesanswer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.3c (1 of 2)answer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.3c (2 of 2)answer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.4aanswer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.9aanswer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.9canswer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.10aanswer in image:Art-labeling Activity: Figure 22.10canswer in image:The smallest subdivisions of the lung visible with the naked eye are the __________, which appear to be connected by black carbon in smokers.lobulesSystemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs is delivered by the __________, and the __________ provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue.pulmonary arteries; bronchial arteries SubmitQuiet inspiration is __________, and quiet expiration is active process; a passive processWhich of the following processes are unique to the respiratory system?pulmonary ventilation and external respiration SubmitJane had been suffering through a severe cold and was complaining of a frontal headache and a dull, aching pain at the side of her face. What regions are likely to become sites of secondary infection following nasal infection?The paranasal sinusesThe loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.force with which air rushes across the vocal foldsThe walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.secrete surfactantWhich of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?C-shaped cartilage ringsThe respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranesThe nose serves all the following functions except the direct initiator of the cough reflexWhich blood vessels supply deoxygenated systemic blood to the alveoli?pulmonary arteries (The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the lungs from the heart to be oxygenated.)The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.TrueValsalva's maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.TrueSmoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.TrueWhich of the following is an INCORRECT statement relating to the airflow to the lungs?When the sternocleidomastoid is activated, expiration occurs. (The sternocleidomastoid muscle elevates the ribs, assisting in inspiration.)Which of the following, if activated as a group, would result in inspiration?external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm (All of these muscles, when activated, assist in increasing the size of the thoracic cavity and causing inspiration.)Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences pulmonary ventilation?partial pressure of oxygen in the airWhich of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing, but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?intrapulmonary pressureWhich of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?intrapleural pressureOne of the following statements about pleural fluid and the pleural cavity is INCORRECT. Which one?Pleural fluid is produced by the lung alveoli. (This is the incorrect statement. Pleural fluid is produced by cells of the pleural membranes.)Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs isgreater than the pressure in the atmosphere.Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluidSurfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluidWhich of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid SubmitWhich of the following determines lung compliance?alveolar surface tensionTidal volume is air ________.exchanged during normal breathingThe lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.vital capacityWhich respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contractIntrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.TrueThe alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.TrueThe average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.False (approx. 1100-1200 mL of air in the lungs)BioFlix Activity: Gas Exchange -- Path of Air Part A - Path of air Drag each label to the appropriate location on the flowchart. Can you trace the path that air follows to reach the lungs? To review the path of air into the lungs, watch the BioFlix animation.answer is in image:BioFlix Activity: Gas Exchange -- Carbon Dioxide Transport In this activity, you will follow carbon dioxide on its path out of the body. To review how carbon dioxide is transported in the body, watch the BioFlix animation: Gas Exchange: Transporting Carbon Dioxide. Part A - Carbon dioxide transport Drag each label to the appropriate location on the flowchart.answer is in image:BioFlix Activity: Gas Exchange -- Oxygen Transport In this activity, you will follow oxygen on its path from the lungs to the body tissues. To review how oxygen is transported in the body, watch the BioFlix animation: Gas Exchange: Transporting Oxygen. Part A - Oxygen transport Drag each label to the appropriate location on the flowchart.answer is in image:Which form of hypoxia reflects poor O2 delivery resulting from too few RBCs or from RBCs that contain abnormal or too little hemoglobin?anemic hypoxia (Anemic hypoxia occurs when the oxygen carrying ability of the blood decreases, and thus, this defect is specifically associated with the blood. This implies that fewer hemoglobin molecules (or oxygen-binding sites) are available for binding oxygen.)Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?dissolved in plasmaWhat is ventilation-perfusion coupling?matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillariesThe statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.Dalton's lawWhich of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?blood pH adjustmentWhich of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?partial pressure gradientVentilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.TrueWhich of the following is the primary factor in oxygen attachment to, or release from, hemoglobin?partial pressure of oxygenWith the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bondIn the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in bloodWhich statement about CO2 is incorrect?More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cellsChanges in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal.TrueIncreased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.FalseRespiratory control centers are located in the ________.medulla and ponsThe Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause overinflation of the lung.False (It prevents over inflation)Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers.TrueAlthough lung cancer is difficult to cure, it is highly preventable.TrueWhich of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?emphysemaA premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.28 weeksWhich of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.Which of the following stimuli is the most powerful respiratory stimulant to increase respiration?rising carbon dioxide levelsUnder ordinary circumstances, which of the following blood components is of no physiological significance?Nitrogen (Nitrogen (N2) is poorly soluble in water. Under normal atmospheric pressures, nitrogen does not enter/leave our body fluids like oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, under ordinary circumstances, nitrogen has no physiological significance in the body.)Normally, the lungs function in a fairly high state of compliance. Which of the following could cause lung compliance to be abnormally high or low?atelectasis pulmonary fibrosis emphysema ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT^^^Which of the following factors benefits pulmonary ventilation by making inspiration easier?increased secretion of surfactant (Surfactant decreases the attraction between water molecules lining the interior surface of the alveoli. As a result, the surface tension of alveolar fluid is reduced, and less energy is needed to overcome those forces to expand the lungs during inspiration.)Your patient has been transported to the emergency department by EMS after a motor vehicle accident with an endotracheal tube in place. You note that his breath sounds are louder on the right side. You are alerted to which of the following situations?Your patient may have a left pneumothorax. The endotracheal tube has been inserted too far, with its tip in the right main bronchus, preventing the left lung from receiving air. Hemorrhage into the left pleural space (hemothorax) has compressed the left lung. ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT^^^ (Pneumothorax, improper endotracheal tube placement, and blood in the pleural space (hemothorax) can all cause asymmetric breath sounds.)Your patient has several cracked ribs from a car accident, which of these would you expect from his or her blood gases?Elevated PCO2 and decreased pH (If he or she cannot take a deep breath, their PCO2 will elevate leading to respiratory acidosis.)