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Reproductive System, Genetics, Conception, & Fetal Development OB
Terms in this set (78)
Estrogen stimulates ________ of the breast
The end of the first pregnancy or in the early period of lactation
** Full development of the breast is not achieved until after
Mammary gland tissue
Progesterone causes maturation of ______ tissue
Ovarian changes throughout the reproductive lifespan
The breasts change in size and modularity in response to...
The female external genitalia (all structures visible externally from the pubis to the perineum) is called the
The vulva includes what structures? (7)
Muscular supporting system to overcome force of gravity
Deep fascia, elevator ani and coccygeal muscles are part of the...
Fibromuscular collapsible tubular structure that lies between the bladder and the rectum and extends from the vulva to the uterus
Acidic - 4.0-5.0 during reproductive years
Vaginal secretions are what pH?
Muscular organ shaped like an upside down pear that sits midline in the pelvic cavity between the bladder and the rectum
Corpus (upper) and Cervix (lower)
The uterus is divided into two major parts- what are they?
Dome-shaped top of the uterus where the uterine tubes enter the uterus
Ampulla, Isthmus, and Fimbria
Three sections of the Fallopian tubes
Provide transport for ovum from ovary to uterus
Provide safe site for fertilization
Serve as warm, moist, nourishing environment for ovum
Functions of the Fallopian tubes
Estrogen and progesterone
Ovaries are the primary source of which two important hormones
Hormone associated with characteristics of femaleness (including breast alveolar lobule growth and duct development)
"Hormone of pregnancy"
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
In the female reproductive cycle, the hypothalamus secretes...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Leteinizing hormone (LH)
In the female reproductive cycle, in response to GnRH, the anterior pituitary secretes which gonadotropic hormones?
Hormone primarily responseible for maturation of ovarian follicle
Hormone necessary for final maturation of follicle. Level peak proceeds ovulation by as much as 12 hours
Estrogen & progesterone ?
In the female reproductive cycle, FSH and LH stimulate the release of what hormones from the ovaries?
Menstrual phase (days 1-6_
Proliferative phase (days 7-14)
Secretory phase (days 15-26)
Ischemic phase (days 27-28)
What are the 4 phases of the uterine (menstrual) cycle?
Menstrual phase (phase 1, days 1-6)
Phase of uterine cycle where mensuration occurs, estrogen and progesterone levels are low, and cervical mucous is scanty, viscous and opaque.
Proliferative phase (phase 2, days 7-14)
Phase of uterine cycle where cervical mucous is thin, clear, watery & alkaline (favorable to sperm) (called spinnbarkheit).
At ovulation, body temperature drops then rises sharply due to progesterone. Blood vessels dilate and endometrium thickens.
Secretory phase (phase 3, days 15-26)
Phase of uterine cycle that follows ovulation. Estrogen levels fall, progesterone dominates, there is endometrial cellular growth, cellular debris accumulates, and uterine vascularity increases.
Ischemic phase (phase 4, days 27-28)
Phase of uterine cycle that occurs IF fertilization does not occur: corpus luteum degenerates, estrogen & progesterone levels fall. Small blood vessels rupture, spiral arteries contract, causing deficiency of blood in endometrium which becomes pale, and menstrual flow begins.
Follicular phase (days 1-14) and Luteal phase (days 15-28)
The two phases of the ovarian cycle
Follicular phase (days 1-14)
Phase of ovarian cycle where a mature Graafian follicle appears within the first 14 days. Maturation is controlled by FSH, estrogen, and the surge of LH (called Mittelschmerz)
Luteal phase (days 15-28)
Phase of ovarian cycle that begins when ovum leaves its follicle. If fertilized, the ovum implants in endometrium and secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). If unfertilized, ovum degenerates & stops producing estrogen and progesterone.
As close to the day of ovulation as possible
When would be the best time to get pregnant?
Increase in temperaturej right before ovulation and increase in vaginal discharge and pain indicates...
Twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation
Prevention of neural tube defects
Folic acid is so important during pregnancy because it...
Test/screening that can indicate neural tube defects?
Fetal respiration, nutrition, excretion
Immunologic functions- prevents rejection
Production of hormones: HCG, hPL, estrogen, progesterone
Functions of placenta?
At the moment of fertilization
When is the sex of the neonate determined?
Cell division that results in daughter cells that are exact replicas of the original cell. Daughter cells contain a full set of chromosomes, therefore called diploid. One-stage division.
Cell division by which diploid cells give rise to gametes (sperm & ovum). These gametes differ from other cells due to having only half the genetic material of parent cell (only 23 chromosomes), therefore called haploid. Two-stage cell reproduction.
Female gametogenesis- ovary gives rise to oogonial cells.
Zone pellucida and Corona radiata
Ovum is a cell surrounded by 2 layers of tissue- what are those two layers?
Clear, no cellular layer that surrounds the ovum whose thickness influences fertilization rate
Ring of elongated cells that radiate from the ovum and are held together by hyaluronic acid
Capacitation and acrosomal reaction
What are changes in sperm?
Removal of protective coating from heads of spree- small perforations form in the acrosome (cap on the sperm)
Allows for escape of enzymes which are needed for the sperm to penetrate the ovum
the zone pellucida
After sperm entry, additional sperm are blocked by...
Secondary locate completes second melodic division, forms nucleus of ovum
After sperm entry, what happens with oogenesis?
Embryonic stage (embryo reaches crown-rump length of 3 cm
Three stages of human development
First 14 days of human development - cellular multiplication begins as zygote travels through Fallopian tube toward uterus. Transport is due to fluid movement from beating ciliated epithelium & peristalsis of tube
Process in which the blastocyst burrows into endometrium. Occurs 6-10 days after conception.
Chorion and amnion
What are the two embryonic membranes?
Outermost layer of embryonic membranes with chorionic villi.
Inner layer of embryonic membranes
Fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus.
Acts as a cushion against mechanical injury, helps control temperature, and permits symmetric external growth. Allows umbilical cord to be relatively free of compression, acts as a wedge during labor and provides fluid for analysis.
Features/functions of amniotic fluid
An extra-embryonic membrane that provides food for the embryo- aids in transferring maternal nutrients & oxygen and aids in transport through blood vessels.
The embryo, the connecting stalk, the chorion, and the yolk sac
By the end of the 3rd week, the primitive heart begins to beat and circulate the blood through... (4 features)
2 arteries and 1 vien
What are the umbilical cord vessels?
Ductus Venosus, foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus
What features of fetal circulation allow the blood to bypass the fetal liver and lungs?
Quality of sperm or ovum
Adequacy of intrauterine environment
Organs formed primarily during embryonic development
Factors influencing embryonic development
Pictorial analysis of an individual's chromosomes
Abnormalities of chromosome number
Abnormalities of chromosome structure
Abnormalities of sex chromosomes
Possible chromosomal abnormalities?
Production of a normal gamete with a gamete that contains an extra chromosome
Individual will have 47 chromosomes (3 copies of the same chromosome)
What is the karyotype of a trisomy look like?
Trisomy 21 - Down syndrome
Most common trisomy?
Normal gamete unites with a gamete that is missing a chromosome
Individual will have 45 chromosomes
Karyotype of a monosomy?
A condition in which cells within the same person have a different genetic makeup. Individual will have 2 different cell lines, each having a different chromosomal number. Occurs after fertilization and is more common in sex chromosomes.
Fragile X syndrome
Common autosomal dominant disorders?
50% chance of passing on the gene. One parent must be affected (ie have the gene) for it to be passed down.
Probability of passing on autosomal dominant disorders
50% chance of passing on abnormal gene
25% chance of having an affected child
If both parents are carriers, probability of passing on autosomal recessive gene? Probability of having an affected child?
50% chance of passing on abnormal gene. 50% chance of passing on abnormal gene and having affected son and 50% chance of passing on abnormal gene and having carrier daughter.
With a carrier mother:
Probability of passing on X-linked recessive disorder gene? Probability of having affected child? Probability of having carrier child?
Maternal serum screening
Chorionic villus sample (CVS)
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)
What are some prenatal diagnostic tests?
Where to refer for congenital abnormalities, familial disorders, known inherited diseases, metabolic disorders, or chromosomal abnormalities?
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