Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (92)
dividing a government's overall territory into smaller, more manageable units
can be called states
What are the advantages of utilizing territory to administer a state?
basic efficiency, greater flexibility in administering some units differently than others, greater degree of responsiveness
What are the disadvantages?
easily restrict access to only certain people and mismatch between the actual shape of a problem and the ability to effectively deal with the problem
Beyond the state, how do other institutions utilize territory to achieve their aims?
The Catholic Church developed territorial divisions, A nested hierarchy of parishes, dioceses, and provinces headed by priests and bishops became an essential aspect of Church structure and continues to this day (Ireland)
What is the political economy of a traditional kingdom?
aka extraction economy, sought chiefly to enrich the ruler and the aristocracy and to maintain its armies
What is the political economy of a Capitalist economy?
wide variety of private concerns took control of the economy and the state assumed a very different role
What is the political economy of a Communism?
a state assumed nearly all economic and social functions and tried to impose comprehensive control over economic activities
The government controls certain economic activities it considers key or appropriate to the public trust while leaving others in the hands of the private sectors
Functions of the modern state
education, social welfare, health care
Other functions government takes on to ensure economy runs smoothly
currency, business regulations, infrastructure
Pluralist theory. Elite theory.
views government as a neutral arbiter of all different stakeholders. See government as likely to support an elite class
Role of government in marxist theory
look at the state as a vehicle for promoting capitalism
set of policies that favor minimal government interference in markets and promote free trade
aka autocratic, states concentrate political power in a single individual or a clique, an oligarchy
type of autocracy as with ideologies of fascism, communism, and religious fundamentalism
Subject and citizen
one is given few rights, obligatory military service, labor and tax. The other has responsibilities and rights
citizenship based on parents
citizenship acquired through birth
Example of jus sanguinis
In Israel, all Jews, at least those with a Jewish mother, are granted automatic citizenship in Israel based on the Law of return of 1950
citizenship in two countries. Valdas Adamkus, president of Lithuania from 1998 to 2003 and from 2004 to 2009, was also a US citizen. American citizens often participate in foreign elections as citizens and have held political office in another country.
How can political subunits be used to acknowledge cultural diversity within a state
Subunits may develop overtime, arising from historical domains and tied to existing socio cultural divisions. Overtime political subunits begin to acquire a distinctive personality and may even press for greater rights
all of the sovereignty and power reside with the central government
each of the subunits is granted independence constitutional authority, which defines its level of power
sovereign states agree to abridge some of their independent powers in order to work together as a group
First introduced federalism
Parts of a confederation remain part of the federation, provinces have a substantial degree of authority
Confederation, unitary government through devolution provides internal autonomy
Unitary state, but components within it have a degree of autonomy far surpassing federal states
Process by which a state can grant powers to lower political subunits
Problems involved in a system of federalism
asymmetrical federalism, one province in Canada, Quebec, has obtained even more powers than other provinces
Examples of core regions
represent the place where the state and dominant nationally emerged. The IDe-de-France is the undisputed core region of France. It includes the capital, Paris, but also is the origin of the french state.
reflect a break from regional interests and an orientation toward the future
located between sectional interests
help move population to less populated areas
Enclave and exclave
An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states). Many exclaves are also enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state.
political subunits that are granted different powers than that of regular subunits, example includes the Aland Islands, located between Sweden and Finland, is another type of special region. While a part of Finland, the islands joined the European Union as a separate entity and do not need to participate in the EU tax system
How is a canadian territory different from a province?
Provinces are vested with a host of constitutional prerogatives, territories in Canada (Yukon, Northwest territories, and Nunavaut) lack any inherent jurisdiction and are essentially wards of the central government
Representative democracy and pure democracy
one is representative and one is direct
How can electoral geography help show spatial patterns of representation
shows how people's political preferences are manifested in representation
Why are terms blue state and red state misleading, especially when scale is considered?
Many states have conservative and liberal people living in them. Traditionally the south is thought of as red but the border between mexico and the US is boldly blue. There are also swing states and many states increasingly becoming purple,
characteristics of people in a local area help determine their political preferences
Basic system of representation
single member plurality system, majoritarian system, list system of proportional representation, mixed system includes both proportional and plurality systems
form of manipulation, some electoral districts vary in size although they are equal in representation
political party in power decide districts that will favor their reelection
how societies adapt to the local habitat and focus on traditional societies engaged in farming
focus on the cognitive processes underlying spatial reasoning, decision making, and behavior
benefits outweigh hazards
environmental events such as floods, hurricanes (cyclones, typhoons), earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis, mus slides, volcanos, and droughts
concluded that human responses to flooding are either structural (building of levees, walls, or other engineering systems of protection) or nonstructural (actions taken by society, political body, or individuals to reduce risk)
Cognitive factors of natural hazards
personality and attitude toward nature and risk
Moment magnitude scale
earthquakes measured in terms of energy released, uses a seismometer on a logarithmic scale
Ring of Fire
zone in the Pacific Ocean, essentially follows the edge of the Pacific Plate, significant Earthquake activity
Earthquakes and tsunamis
Tsunamis are also referred to as "harbor waves." they can be caused by earthquakes when plates shift
Hurricanes and storm surges
a storm surge is a wall of wind driven water that can be meters of tens of meters higher than sea level
between Rockies and Appalachians
used for water diversion for irrigation of cotton fields, 10% of its original size, polluted and salty
large underground water supply from Nebraska to Texas, amount of water taken out each year is outpacing the natural rate of recharge
elevated levels of nitric and sulfuric acids in rain
waste that poses a risk to the environment or the human population
not in my backyard
allows government to assess the magnitude of a pollution site, prioritize cleanup, develop, and implement cleanup programs
formed when organic matter deposited on earth's surface is changed by pressure and time over thousands of years to form coal, oil, and natural gas
humans ruin everything
environmental laws and regulations are implemented everywhere without regard to race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status
situations in which polluters intentionally or unintentionally take advantage of a minority community because they feel the community is less likely to oppose environmental hazards
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
3. Supranational organizations
organization or union in which member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in the decision making and vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping. The European Union and the World Trade Organization are both supranationals.
the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration.
5. Ethnic separatism
the advocacy of a state of cultural,ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.
the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.
the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale
8. Climate change
a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
9. Greenhouse Effect
the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface.
10. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.
11. European Union (EU)
which the member states of the EEC are evolving. Based on the Maastrict Treaty, it envisions the eventual establishment of common economic, foreign, security, and justice policies.
12. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
a regional intergovernmental organisation comprising ten Southeast Asian states which promotes Pan-Asianism and intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, exc.
13. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
a piece of regulation implemented January 1, 1994 simultaneously in Mexico, Canada and the United States that eliminates most tariffs on trade between these nations.
a city or town that has corporate status and local government.
the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife.
17. Environmental justice
fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
18. Point source pollution
single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution. Apoint source has negligible extent, distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries. ... Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet.
19. Nonpoint source pollution
unlike pollution from industrial and sewage treatment plants, comes from many diffuse sources.________ pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground
20. Passive solar energy systems
Using the sun's energy to heat a building; the windows, walls, and floors can be designed to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter (and also to reject solar heat in the summer).
21. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane.
22. Renewable energy
energy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind or solar power.
23. Nonrenewable energy
A natural resource such as coal, gas, or oil that, once consumed, cannot be replaced. Most energy resources currently in use are non-renewable while the renewable ones (such as wind and solar power) are not well developed. Also called depletable resource.
24. Photochemical smog
the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone.
25. Fossil fuels
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
Sets with similar terms
AP Human Geography Chapter 11: Geography of Govern…
AP Hug Malinowski Ch. 11
AP Human Geography Chapter 11
AP Human Vocab Political
Other sets by this creator
human geo ch8
human geo ch 7
human geo ch 6
human geo ch5