Health Systems Mid-term

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Problems of quality, cost, and access of health care in the United States are most attributable to which of the following?
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Terms in this set (79)
The development of healthcare policy and provision of healthcare services are complex processes, with responsibilities shared across all levels of government within the United States: federal, state, and local. All of the following are roles of state governments in health care in the United States EXCEPT:Provide health care for military veterans (Fund and administer Medicaid; Licensing of health care providers; Care and facilitate mentally ill)Given the focus of the Affordable Care Act, there is concern that there may be a shortage of which of the following health professions to meet the changing health care needs of the U.S. population?Primary care physiciansAccording to the Institute of Medicine's research, at least how many Americans die in U.S. hospitals each year due to medical errors?44,000The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as which of the following?A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-beingU.S. federal organization is specifically responsible for reporting on progress made toward improved health care quality and opportunities for ongoing improvement?Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityWhat was the obesity rate of the United States in 2010?35.9%In 2011, the per capita healthcare expenditure in the United States was approximately which of the following?$8,500Beginning in 2013, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began to release certain Medicare provider charge data for public viewing. The purpose of this action is primarily to increase which of the following in the U.S. health care system?TransparencyIf implementation of the Affordable Care Act continues to move forward as intended, which of the following is likely to occur?Patients will become more active participants in their healthcareAll of the following are aspects of the current U.S. healthcare system that consumers typically like EXCEPT:care coordination (consumer choice of plan and coverage; access to latest medical technologies and medicines; perceived high-quality clinical care; access to doctors and medical professionals)In the 19th century, most Americans received health care in what setting?HomesWhich federal health program was enacted with bipartisan support due to the fact that it provides health insurance for children, who are considered a "deserving group"?(S)CHIPPublic hospitals and health clinics in the U.S. are primarily owned and operated by?Local governmentsThe Affordable Care Act was designed to provide insurance coverage for how many people in the U.S. who were uninsured at the time of its passing (2010)?32 MillionDuring the early 2000s, the number of Americans without health insurance grew to about what percentage of the nation's population?15%Initiatives contained in the Affordable Care Act?-Nearly all Americans are required to have some form of health insurance or pay a penalty through the tax code -Private health insurance plans will have to meet a minimum requirement of covered primary care service offerings -Each state will be encouraged to create an online insurance exchange, through which the uninsured will be able to purchase more affordable private coverage -Employers with more than 50 full-time employees will be required to provide health insurance coverage to their employees or pay a penalty NOT: Those with private health insurance plans are required to drop them and obtain insurance through the online government health insurance exchangeWhich medical providers focus on providing care to the most vulnerable groups within a community, including the uninsured, the underinsured, the homeless, the disabled, documented and undocumented immigrants, high-risk mothers and infants, and those with limited proficiency in speaking and reading English?Public hospitalsWhich entity has taken primary responsibility for the care of the mentally ill over the past century in the U.S.?State governmentsA Supreme Court decision in 2012 accomplished which of the following related to the Affordable Care Act?Rendered state participation in Medicaid expansion voluntaryWhich federal program is a collection of 50 state-administered programs, each providing health insurance to low-income state residents, but with differing eligibility rules, benefits, and payment schedules?MedicaidWhich criteria for payment of healthcare typically results in wealthier, younger, and healthier individuals paying disproportionately to finance the care of poorer, older, and sicker individuals?Ability-to-pay criteriaMost countries with national health insurance systems finance these systems with which of the following?Payroll taxesWhich healthcare system model is characterized by a dominant share of financing derived from general revenue taxes?Beveridge modelThe U.S.'s healthcare system can best be described by?patchwork of public and private insurance systemWhen compared with other nations in terms of health care, the U.S. may be characterized as having which of the following?High expenses with large inequities in access to primary and specialty careBy the end of 2013, about half of physician payments to healthcare providers in China came from which of the following?Fee-for-serviceWhich nation's health care system most closely follows the Beveridge model?United KingdomIn 2011, what percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) did the U.S. spend on health care?17.7%Which of the following is a characteristic of the U.S. healthcare system that distinguishes it from foreign healthcare systems?The US healthcare system does not operate within the confines of a budgetAmong health care programs in the U.S., which is the best example of socialized medicine?Veterans hospital administration (VA)All of the following are primary concerns related to tobacco use in the medical model EXCEPT:Implementation of smoke-free laws ARE: -Focus of Individual patients -Cessation counseling -Nicotine replacement optionsThe fact that an individual smokes would be classified as which type of determinant of health?Health-related behaviorAccording to the text, what proportion of total U.S. healthcare expenditure is spent on diseases that are considered preventable?Two thirdsWhich of the following words best describes the current healthcare system in the U.S.?ReactiveAn individual's income would be classified as which type of determinant of health?Social and economic environmentAbout what percentage of the overall U.S. healthcare expenditure is spent on efforts to prevent illness, as opposed to treating illness?5%According to the 2010 County Health Rankings Model, which category of health determinants had the greatest impact on health outcomes?Social and economic factorsAccording to Trust for America's Health, an investment of $10 per person per year in proven community-based programs to increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and prevent smoking and other tobacco use could save the country more than $16 billion annually; this would produce what return for every $1 invested?$5.60Which of the following medical care delivery models is used most by Western physicians and is representative of a set of procedures used to diagnose and treat illness?Medical modelA nurse is working with a patient who is a compulsive over eater. Because of overeating, the patient has become obese. The patient explains that she feels shame because of her obesity and that the shame, in turn, causes her to eat more to comfort herself. This situation, in which the patient's obesity actually contributes to her overeating, is an example of which of the following?Reverse causalityThe 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gives which entity or entities the primary responsibility for public health?the statesAlthough the states have constitutional authority to implement public health, federal laws pertaining to public health can supersede state laws. This is known as which of the following?PreemptionA program that seeks to educate children and their parents on the importance of wearing helmets while bicycling is an example of which of the following?Primary preventionAn ad campaign that stresses the importance of wearing a seatbelt when driving or riding in a car is an example of which of the following?Universal preventionA county health inspector visits a restaurant and files a report on her findings. This is an example of which core function of public health?assuranceWhich of the following is a public health, rather than a health care, intervention?Teaching a free seminar at a community health clinic on heart-healthy cookingA water aerobics class specifically designed for clients with osteoarthritis, to help restore them to their highest level of functioning and minimize negative impacts of this disease, is an example of which of the following?Tertiary preventionAll of the following are true of public health institutes EXCEPT:Part of state governments TRUE: Can advocate for public health programs and funding May accept private funds Offer a credible, neutral, third-party voiceWhich of the following represents the first step in the circle of public health activities?Define the problemWhich of the following terms is defined as "the combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health"?Health promotionWhich learning theory emphasizes interactions between internal and external environmental influences on behavior and is the dominant model for effective cognitive-behavioral health behavior change interventions?social learning theoryWhich of the following is NOT a risk factor for childhood obesity?middle-class backgroundWhich of the following IS NOT a characteristic of the chronic care model of health behavior change?reactiveApproximately what percentage of American adults are either overweight or obese?70%Which of the following is an example of a "midstream" intervention for behavior change?Worksite wellness seminar on proper nutrition and regualr exerciseWhich of the following is NOT one of the four leading behavioral risk factors that lead to death?Lack of seatbelt useMark, a friend of yours, has recently begun talking about quitting smoking. He has spoken with his doctor and is gathering information from some of his friends who have successfully quit. He plans on actually quitting in about 3 months, right after the holiday season. Which stage of the stages-of-change model of health behavior change is Mark currently in?ContemplationWhich of the following causes more preventable deaths and diseases than any other behavioral risk factor?Tobacco useBinge drinking for men is defined as having at least how many drinks on a single occasion?5In 2011, what percentage of adults engaged in at least 75 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise, a proportion that meets Healthy People 2020 guidelines for recommended physical activity among adults?48%Your mother complains because she has to drive "all over town" to various doctors and specialists to manage her health, which requires that she take several days off from work instead of just one. This barrier to her health care is known as which of the following?FragmentationAccording to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, approximately what percentage of U.S. adults had two to three concurrent chronic conditions?20%Even with the Affordable Care Act in place, approximately how many people currently residing in the U.S. are expected to remain without health insurance?24 millionBased on poverty statistics, which of the following is at the greatest risk of being in poverty?10 year old african american boyWhich of the following is NOT eligible for Medicare?A young family with low income and childrenWhich of the following is the best example of a social health need?homelessnessIn 2030, when the entire baby boom generation will have turned 65, seniors will make up approximately what proportion of the population?one fourthWhich of the following are the core providers to America's sickest, poorest, and most vulnerable populations?public hospitalsBefore discharging a patient from the hospital, a nurse provides detailed instructions to the patient on how to change a wound dressing himself at home. The nurse demonstrates the task and has the patient practice it before discharge. Which delivery strategy is the nurse primarily using here?Patient engagement