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66 terms

Chpt 12- Sterilization

terminology & self quiz questions
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disinfectant
chemical agent used on inanimate objectsj (surface) to destroy microorganisms. Ex: alcohol
antiseptics
chemical agent that can be safely used externally on tissues to destroy microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Ex: alcohol
time, temp, pH, concentration
the potency of chemical antimicrobial agents are affected by these
time
30 seconds to one minute
temperature
heat speads up reaction; cold slows down. Ex: warm tissue
pH
environmental facter in the potency of chemical agents
bleach
full strength can be toxic. 5-10 % is just as good as full strength because full strength can be toxic
phenol coefficient
the ratio of a dilution of an agent to the dilution of phenol that will kill all organisms in 10 minutes but not in 5 minutes
filter paper method
methods of evaluation the antimicrobial properties of a chemical agent using filter paper disks placed on an inoculated agar plate
use dilution method
...
ideal disinfectant should be...
fast acting, effective, penetrate ealily, easy to prepare, inexpensive, pleasant odor or none at all
reactions that affect proteins
denaturation, heat, acids, alkalis and other agents
reactions that affect membranes
surfactants, wetting agents
reactions that affect other cell components
alkylating agents
reactions that affect viruses
alkylating agents, detergents, alcohols, dyes
specific chemical antimicrobial agents
soaps/detergents, acids/alkalis, heavy metals, halogens, alcohols, phenols, oxidizing agents, alkylating agents, dyes, other agents
aerosol
cloud of tiny liquid droplets suspended in air
autoclave
an insturment used for sterilization by means of moist heat under pressure
bacteriostatic
referring to an agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria
cavitation
the formation of a cavity inside the cytoplasm of a cell
decimal reduction time (DRT)
the length of time needed to kill 90% of the organisms in a given population at a specified temperature
disinfection
reducing the number of pathogenic organisms on objects or in materials so that they pose no threat of disease
filtration
method of sterilization that uses a mebrane filter to separate bacteria from growth media
lyophilization
freeze drying, a means of preservation of cultures
pasteurization
mild heating to destroy pathogens and other organisms that cause spoilage
phenol coefficient
a numerial expression for the effectiveness of a disinfectant relative to that of phenol
plasmolysis
shrinking of a cell; losing water
quaternary ammonium compound (quat)
a cationic detergent that has four organic groups attached to a nitrogen atom
rad
a unit of radiation energy absorbed per gram of tissue
sonication
disruption of cells by sound waves
sterility
the state in which there are no living organisms in or on a material
sterilization
the killing or removal of ALL microorganisms in any material or on any object (surgical instruments)
surfactant
a substance that reduces surface tension
thermal death point
the temperature that kills all the bacteria in a 24-hour-old broth culture at neutral pH in 10 minutes
thermal death time
the time required to kill all the bacteria in a particular culture at a specified temperature
tincture
an alcoholic solution
ultrahigh temp (UHT) processing
a method of sterililzation milk and daury products by raising the temperature to 87.8 degrees C for 3 seconds
use-dilution test
a method of evaluation the antimicrobial properties of a chemical agent using standard preparation of certain test bacteria
wetting agent
a detergent solution often used with other chmical agents to penetrate fatty substances
germicidal
kills microbes
viricidal
inactivates viruses
sporicidal
kills bacterial endospores and fungal spores
fungicidal
kills yeasts and molds
bacteriocidal
kills bacteria
disinfection
reduction in numbers of pathogenic organisms on objects or in materials so that they do not pose a disease threat
pasteurization process
kills microbial pathogens that might be present in milk
hypochlorite
active antimicrobial ingredient in bleach
gaseous ethylene oxide
method of sterilizing rubber, plastic and bulky materials (mattresses)
15 minutes
minimum time used for sterilization by autoclaving
bacillus stearothermophilus
recommended method for testing that an autoclave has truly sterilized a load uses this
water
microwaves will only heat materials that contain this
passing liquid through a 0.22-µm filter
method that kills bacteria in a liquid without damaging heat-labile proteins in the solution
heat-sensitive materials
the use of autoclaves is limited with these
70%
the percentage of alcohol that is the most effective
soaps & detergents
these aid in the removal of microbes, oils, and dirt but does not sterilize
nitrates
commonly used as food preservatives
alkali
in soap and helps destroy microorganisms
silver nitrate
used to kill gonococci (among the agents containing heavy metals)
mercury-containing compounds
used to disinfect instruments and skin (among the agents containing heavy metals)
chlorine
used to kill pathogens in water (among the agents containing halogens)
iodine
major ingredient in several skin disinfectants (among the agents containing halogens)
phenol derivatives
can be used on skin, instruments, dises and furniture and to destroy discarded cultures
oxidizing agents
useful in disinfecting puncture wounds
alkylating agents
can be used to disinfect or to sterilize a variety of materials, but all are carcinogens
radiation
includes UV light, ionizing radiaion, and sometimes microwaves and strong sunlight
sonication
disruption of cells by sound waves