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Terms in this set (154)
What is the handle?
Is the part of the instrument that the operator grasps and is designed to give stabilization for grip and leverage.
What is a fulcrum?
The pivotal point or finger rest support used to control a dental instrument
What are some of the shapes the handle comes in?
Round, hexagonal, serrated, smooth, or padded.
What is the shank?
Is straight or bent at an angle and connects the handle to the working end of an instrument
What are the angles the shank can come in?
Straight, mono-angled, biangled, or triple-angled.
What is the working end?
The point, blade, or nib end on the instrument
What is the working end of the instrument designed to do?
To perform a specific function. The point or tip is used for diagnosis of dental conditions and to retract tissues. The blade of a hand instrument is a flat or rounded cutting edge and is most often at an angle.
What is a bevel and what is it used to do?
A slanted cutting edge and is used to place a distinct beveled angle at the enamel margins of cavity preparations.
Who classified instruments into six categories?
Dr. G.V. Black
What are the six categories of instruments that Dr. G.V. black classified?
1. Cutting instruments
2. Condensing instruments
3. Plastic instruments
4. Finishing and polishing instruments
5. Isolation instruments
6. Miscellaneous instruments
What are the major categories of dental instruments?
How are sterile dental instruments always organized on the tray?
In their sequence of use from left to right, or from closest to the patient to farthest from the patient
What is the first instrument closest to the patient?
It is always the mouth mirror, which is the primary instruments in every dental setup
What are examination instruments designed to be used for?
Specifically for examining the teeth and oral tissues.
What is the basic setup consists of?
Mouth mirror, an explorer, and cotton pliers
In addition to a basic setup what are some additional items?
Periodontal probe, articulating paper, and 2x2 gauze
What does the mouth mirror enable the dental clinician to see through reflection?
Surfaces of the teeth that cannot be seen with direct vision
What can mouth mirrors be?
Glass mirrors or magnifying mirrors
What are mouth mirrors available in?
Metal, fiberglass, or disposable plastic
What surfaces may a mouth mirror have?
Plane surface, front surface, or concave surface
What are the mouth mirror three ranges of uses?
1. Indirect vision
What are dental explorers?
Sharp, pointed metallic instruments designed so that the various surface of the teeth may be conveniently reach with the tip
What are the three most common designs of a dental explorers?
1. Shepherd's hook
3. Right-angle explorer
What are dental explorers used for?
Diagnostic purposes, including the ability to penetrate defects in tooth surfaces between the teeth
What are the other diagnostic purposes an explorer can be used for?
*Locating caries and enamel defects on tooth surfaces
*Locating supragingival and subgingival calculus
*Locating faulty margins on dental restorations
What are cotton pliers?
Tweezer-like metallic instruments that are either locking or nonlocking
What are cotton pliers supplied with?
Serrated or smooth beaks
What are cotton pliers used for?
Handling small cotton pellets, cotton rolls, small instruments, or other small items placed into or withdrawn from the mouth
What is the working end of cotton pliers also used to do?
How are cotton pliers used in the treatment room in order to avoid crosscontamination?
Transport items from drawers and containers
What are periodontal probes used to determine?
The depth and outline of soft tissue pockets, in the gingival sulcus
Are periodontal single- or double-ended?
What are hand cutting instruments designed with?
Sharp cutting edges
What are hand cutting instruments used for?
Cavity preparations of various teeth in different parts of the mouth
What do cutting or refining instruments include?
Spoon excavators, chisels, hatchets, hoes, and gingival margin trimmers
What is a spoon excavator?
A double ended instrument with a spoon or disk-shaped blade
What is a spoon excavator primarily used for?
To remove debris, decay, and dentin from tooth preparations.
What are the tips and sides of the spoon excavator are paired and designed to make?
A cutting or spooning action
Spoon excavators may also be used to remove?
Temporary crowns or excess temporary and permanent cement
What is another name for a chisel?
What is a chisel used for?
To cleave or split enamel not supported by dentin along the lines of the enamel rods, and to smooth and sharpen cavity walls.
What kind of bevel and shank does a straight chisels have?
Single bevel and straight shank
What kind of bevel and shank does a wedelstaedt have?
Single bevels and curved shank
What do binangle chisels have?
Two distinct angles-one at the shank and one at the working end
What are enamel hatches?
Have single cutting ends or cutting edges on both ends
What degrees are the enamel hatch blades?
45 to 90 degree angles from the shank
What do enamel hatches designed to do?
To cleave or cut enamel along the lines of enamel rods and to prepare the walls and accessible margins of a cavity preparation.
What do dental hoes look like?
Miniature garden hoes
What do dental hoes do?
They are used with a pulling motion to smooth and shape the floor and sides of cavity preparations.
What are the degree of a dental hoes blade and handle?
45 to 90 degree angle and perpendicular from their handle
What do gingival margin trimmers look like?
Modified hatches that have working ends with opposite curvatures and bevels
What are gingival margin trimmers used to do?
Used to trim, smooth, and shape and gingival floor of a cavity preparation in order to aid in retention of the restoration.
What are gingival margin trimmers available in and used in?
Double-ended styles and are used in pairs
When sharpening hand cutting instruments the edge of the blade must be kept at a proper angle as it is sharpened because?
Incorrect sharpening will alter the angle of a hand instrument and ruin its edges
Instrument sharpening may be done manually with?
Flat Arkansas sharpening stone or an aluminum oxide stone
The sharpening stone must be lubricated with what before being used to sharpen instruments?
What do amalgam carriers do?
Transport freshly prepared amalgam restorative materials to the cavity preparation.
On the amalgam carrier what is a barrel and what does it do?
Hollow working ends, in which the amalgam is packed for transportation
What happens when the amalgam carriers lever at the top is depressed?
Amalgam is ejected into the cavity preparation
What is another name for amalgam condenser?
What is an amalgam used to do?
Condense, or pack, amalgam filling material into the cavity preparation
What is the design of the amalgam design?
Single and double ended design. They are variously shaped and sized working ends, which may be smooth or serrated
On the amalgam condenser what does the hammer-like working end large enough to do?
Compress the soft amalgam without sinking into it
What are carver used for?
They have sharp cutting edges that are used to shape, form, or cut tooth anatomy into amalgam restorations
What carvers are used on the occlusal surface?
The discoid/cleoid and Tanner #5
What carvers are designed for carving between interproximal tooth surfaces?
What carver is used to quickly carve basic anatomy on occlusal surfaces?
Frahm Amalgam Carver
What is another name for frahmn amalgam carver?
When the carving is complete the clinician may use what to smooth and polish the amalgam restoration and remove scratches left on the amalgam surface from the carving instruments?
What does a burnisher do?
Smooth and polish the amalgam restoration and remove scratches left on the amalgam surface from the carving instruments
What is the burnishers design?
They have smooth rounded working ends and come in a variety of shapes
What variety of shapes do burnishers come in?
Round, egg, football, and flat
Are plastic filling instruments double-ended or single-ended?
What are plastic filling instruments used for?
Transporting and placing cements, temporary filling materials, and insulating and pulp-capping materials.
What do the working ends of plastic filling instruments vary from?
Small cylinders to assorted angles and paddle-like shapes
What are plastic filling instruments designed to do?
Place materials into the tooth while they are still in their plastic and pliable stage, before they harden.
What is the most common plastic filling instrument?
What are composite resin instruments used for?
Condensing and contouring dental composite resin restorative materials are manufactured in anodized aluminum, aluminum titanium-coated stainless steel, or Teflon
What cement spatulas?
Single-ended stainless steel instruments used to mix cements, insulating bases, and temporary.
What is articulating paper forceps used for?
Hold articulating paper when checking the patient's occlusion after filling material has been placed.
What is an amalgam well used for?
To hold amalgam before it is picked up by the amalgam carrier
What is a glass dappen dish used for?
Hold liquid and medications before transfer to the mouth.
What is a rotary device?
Is a power-driven revolving device that is used to cut enamel, dentin, or tooth restorative materials
The high-speed and slow-speed motors are used in conjunction with what?
Tungesten carbide, stainless steel, or industrial diamond burs
Rotary instruments are operated by what?
What does the foot pedal do?
Controls the power source and the amount of compressed air going to the handpiece.
What is the dental handpiece?
A precision-built mechanical device designed for use with rotary instruments.
What do dental handpieces include?
Burs, stones, wheels, and disks that utilized during dental treatment
Handpieces may be what?
Air driven, electric, or compressed gas.
Handpiece tubing systems are available with how many holes?
Two or four
What has been added to handpieces to provide the dentist with a light source?
High-speed handpieces speed ranges from?
380,000 to 400,000 rpm
Burs are inserted into what on the high-speed handpiece?
Metal friction grip chuck
What does the the high-speed handpiece use to cool the handpiece as well as prevent heat damage to the tooth pulp?
A water system
How do fiber-optic systems work?
By light traveling through long thin fibers of glass or transparent material to the head of the dental handpiece.
What should be used to clean both ends of the handpiece before sterilization?
A wet cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
What is another name for slow-speed handpieces?
What instruments are the most versatile due to their wide variety of applications in dentistry?
What are slow-speed handpieces used for?
Removing caries, refining cavity preparation, performing coronal polish, and adjusting restoration and acrylics.
What is the speed range of slow-speed handpieces?
5,000 to 80,000 rpm.
What does the slow-speed handpiece include?
Slow-speed motor and a straight attachment into which an assortment of rotary instruments or dental burs are fitted
The slow-speed straight attachment for handpieces refers to what and how is it used?
Nose cone that is connected to the motor and may be used independently with long shank burs or linked to other attachments
What are some burs that are fitted into the straight attachment?
Contra-angle attachment, prophylaxis angle, or numerous accessory long-shank straight burs
What does the term contra-angle describe?
The angle at the head of the handpiece attachment.
What attachment changes the desired angle for better access to difficult areas within the oral cavity?
The slow-speed contra-angle has what type of head into which the dental bur or other rotary instrument is placed?
What is the function of the contra-angle?
*Remove carious tooth structure
*Refine cavity preparations
*Adjust or polish restorations
*Adjust temporary or permanent prostheses
What are some other names for the right-angle attachment?
Prophylaxis attachment or prophy-angle
The handpiece and attachments should be connected and run to blow out what?
Connected to the hose and run to blow out excess lubricant from the rotating parts
What should handpieces and attachments be sterilized by?
No dental handpiece should ever be place in what?
The ultrasonic unit
What handpiece that uses small particles of aluminum oxide powder blown through very find tips?
The powder forced out by a stream of compressed air in air-abrasion removes what?
Small caries, stain, or plaque
Why is air-abrasion technology also called microdentistry?
Because it allows much smaller cavities to be restored without "drilling" the tooth structure
The FDA has approved the use of the dental laser handpiece for treatment of what?
Soft tissues to remove lesions or tumors, to trim down excess tissue, and to control bleeding.
Laser technology is currently being used in what five areas of dental care?
*Periodontal therapy and recontouring of gingival tissues
*Whitening teeth with special activated by laser energy
*Curing.hardening of bonding materials
*Curing/polymerizations of light-cured restorative materials
*Removing decayed tooth structure
What handpiece is often used in dental laboratories for grinding and polishing?
What is the speed range of the electric handpiece?
1,500 to 35,000 rpm
What are burs made of?
Stainless steel or tungsten carbide and some have diamond cutting edges
What are the three basic parts off a bur?
On the bur what is the shank?
The part of the bur that fits into the handpiece
On the bur what is the neck?
The part of the bur that tapers to connect the shank with the bur head
On the bur what is the head?
The working end of the bur; the part of the bur that cuts or smooths
What is need on dental burs to prevent cross-contamination of infectious organisms?
For dental burs what is preferred over steam autoclaving due to the potential for corrosion of the metal?
Dry heat sterilization
What does the long straight shank of a bur look like?
Is smooth and fits into the straight attachment of the slow-speed handpiece once prophy-angle or contra-angle has been removed
What is the straight burs length?
What does the latch-type bur fit into?
Fits into the latch of the contra-angle for use on the slow-speed handpiece
Where does the friction grip fir into?
The turbine of the high-speed handpiece
What is the length of the latch-type and friction grip bur?
What are the basic shaped of burs?
Rounded, inverted cone, pear shaped, straight, and tapered plain fissure, and straight and tapered fissure cross-cut
What does each bur shape have relating to the shape and size of the bur head?
What are the four identifying characteristics about dental burs?
1. The description of the shape and size of the working end of the bur
2. The identifying number describing the bur
3. The handpiece attachment into which the bur fits
4.The material the bur is made of
Diamond dental burs are available in an abundance of what?
Different shapes and sizes for friction grip high-speed handpiece application.
What do diamond bur shape include?
Round, long and flat cylinder, tapered cylinder, football, flame, and wheel shaped
What grits are diamond burs available in?
Coarse, medium, fine, and ultrafine grits
Why should diamond burs be heat sterilized before and between patients?
To prevent cross-contamination
Why should composite and other tooth-colored restorations be trimmed and contoured to their proper shaped after they have hardened?
To provide maximum smoothness and aesthetics
What burs are used to trim and contoured composites?
Fluted finishing burs, along with fine grits diamonds
What shapes are finishing burs available in?
Round, oval, flame, needle, bud, and tapered fissure
How many flutes are on finishing burs?
12 or 30 blades
What are finishing burs used in?
Abrasive rotary instruments are available in what grits?
Coarse, medium, fine, and extra fine
What do abrasive rotary instruments come as?
Mounted or unmounted stones and wheels, or impregnated into soft rubber polishing cups, points, and wheels, or as disks designed for use with a mandrel
What are abrasive strips used for?
Cutting, smoothing, or polishing between the teeth
The final polish for composite may be accomplished by?
The use of powders such as silex, tin oxide, or very fine aluminum oxide
What are mandrels used to hold?
Disks or wheels during their use
What are snap-on mandrels used for?
Sandpaper and linenbacks disks that have a brass center, which snaps onto the mandrel
What are screw-on mandrels used for?
Specific disks and wheels for finishing and polishing items outside of the oral cavity
What are laboratory burs used for in the dental office?
Cutting diagnostic cast models or trimming acrylic dental prostheses such as dentures or temporary crowns
What are the most commonly used laboratory burs shaped?
Flame, tapered, or round shaped
What are lab burs?
Larger carbide burs, with a normal shank for use in the straight attachment on a slow-speed dental handpiece, or with a wider shank designed for use with a dental lathe
What system provides the safest and most efficient transportation and storage methods for dental instruments and ease of sterilization and organization?
Can cassettes be placed directly into an ultrasonic cleaners to remove debris from all instruments?
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