Bio Exam II Connect

Select all the true statements concerning mitosis.
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Some Actinomycetes form branched filamentous cells that resemble fungal mycelia. What statement comparing Actinomycete bacteria and fungi is TRUE?

a. Actinomycete bacteria and fungi are phylogenetically related.
b. The cells of Actinomycete bacteria and fungi are similar is size, content, and structure.
c. Actinomycete bacteria and fungi reproduce in a similar fashion.
d. Actinomycete bacteria and fungi are both primarily parasitic/pathogenic organisms.
e. None of these are TRUE
Select the true statements concerning sperm and pollen.-In seed plants the entire male gametophyte is dispersed. -Pollen transports the cells that form the sperm but only the sperm fertilizes the egg. -Unlike mosses and ferns water is not needed for fertilization in seed plants.Place the correct terms into the sentences about prokaryotic reproductive strategies.-The primary form of reproduction in bacteria is binary fission. -Structures called pili assist bacteria with genetic exchange. -Stressful environments cause many bacteria to produce spores to survive harmful conditions. -Many bacteria exchange genetic material through a mating process called conjugation. -A process known as transduction involves viruses as a means of bacterial DNA exchange.When amoeboids feed, their pseudopods surround and engulf their prey. Based on this information, which hypothesis follows logically?Amoeboids are able to sense prey and move toward it.Which category of organisms is responsible for fixing the world's supply of carbon?PhotosynthesizersAntibiotics are quite common in hospitals, and bacteria that persist in these types of environments often have genes for resistance. Select all the true statements concerning this situation.-This is an example of natural selection. -The possession of one or more R-plasmids would be beneficial to the bacteria in this situation.Which observation provides the best evidence that mitosis did not evolve all at once during eukaryote evolution?Prophase differs between animal cells and fungal cells.Select each type of tissue that may be found in a mature fruit or seed.-Diploid sporophyte tissue from the previous generation -Triploid endosperm -Diploid embryonic tissue -Tissue from the female gametophytePlant life cycle sentences-The haplodiplontic life cycle is also referred to as alternation of generations. -The diploid generation is known as the sporophyte and produces spores. -The haploid generation is known as the gametophyte and produces gametes. -Unlike animals, plants produce gametes through mitosis of haploid cells.Place the characteristic into the appropriate category of bacteria or archaea.Archaea: Extreme environments, related to eukarya, ether-linked cell membranes, several RNA polymerases Bacteria: peptidoglycan cell wall, some are photosynthetic, ester-linked cell membranes, one RNA polymeraseWhich of the following is true for all protists?Protists are eukaryotic organisms that are not plants, animals, or fungi.Place the names of these different taxa on the phylogeny.plant cladogram- chapter 29 slide 24Complete the sentences about kinetoplastid characteristics with the correct terms.-Unlike euglenoids, kinetoplastids are parasites. -Kinetoplastids are unique because they have a single mitochondrion in each cell. -The trypanosome is commonly associated with African sleeping sickness. -Trypanosomes evade the body's defenses because they can readily change the antigens on their surface.Select the true statements concerning seeds.-Seeds allow for dormancy until favorable conditions arise. -The outer layer of the ovule dries and forms the seed coat. -Seeds can resist conditions that would kill a live plant. -Seeds are key to wide dispersal of offspringDeep sea thermal vents are characterized by extreme pressures, very high water temp (exceeding 100 celsius) and very high concentrations of minerals. What type of prokaryotic organisms are most likely to be found there and why?Archaea; tetraethers are more thermally stable.Know the fern life cycleProtists are very diverse, and many different classification schemes have been used to define relationships between the protists. Traditionally, protists have been classified by their source of energy and nutrients, while newer classification schemes use mode of locomotion. How are amoeboids classified using both of these schemes?heterotrophic by ingestion, pseudopodsProtist movement Complete the sentences about protist movement with the correct terms.-Tiny hairlike structures called cilia are characteristic of certain protists. -Some protists use a long whip-like structures called flagella to swim. -Movement in amoeba is carried out using structures called pseudopods. -Long, thin locomotion structures called axopodia can be contracted and extended.Place the characteristics into the appropriate category of Unique to Oomycetes or Common to Many Protists.Unique to Oomycetes: Saprobes, zoospores, plant pathogens Common to many protists: single nucleus, chloroplasts, swim with flagellaWhich one feature best represents evolutionary differences and relationships between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya?The mode of gene expressionWhy can agricultural runoff kill fish in coastal areas that are potentially hundreds of miles from the fields?Excess fertilizer can cause dinoflagellate blooms which produce toxins.A feature that is shared by pines, cycads, and gingkos but is not found in flowering plants ispartially exposed megaspore.Malarial merozoites can't reproduce in a sickled red blood cell. Although a person with sickle cell anemia does not have 100% sickled red blood cells, people with sickle cell anemia have chronic health problems andhave increased resistance to malaria.Early classification methods for prokaryotes would not include which of the following?G-C percentagesCheck which of the following are correct regarding the benefit of seeds.-Seeds provide a source of nourishment to the embryonic plant. -The integument forms a seed coat that protects against desiccation. -Seeds provide a structure in which a dormant embryo can avoid unfavorable growing conditions and germinate when conditions improve. -Seeds are a means to transport offspring away from the parental plantSelect the true statements concerning tracheids.-All of the large dominant extant land plants are tracheophytes. -Tracheids allow for efficient transport of water over longer distances.Place the correct terms into the sentences about bacterial sexually transmitted diseases.-Syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum, produces sores at the point of infection. -This "silent STD" caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing dramatically. -The most prevalent STD in North American is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Place the descriptions into the appropriate category of a characteristic of Diatom Shells, Foraminifera Shells, or Both Shell Types.Diatom shells: opaline silica, box-like, two halves Foraminifera shells: calcium carbonate, often multichambered, pores both shell types: rigidPlace the descriptions into the appropriate category of Unique to Alveolata or Common to Many Protists.unique to alveolata: stacked flattened vesicles, powerful toxins, bioluminescence, flagella in grooves, DNA lacks histones common to many protists: chloroplasts, protective covering, single nucleus, primarily asexualAmoeba move by the formation of what type of cellular extension?pseudopodsWhat is one common use of red algae by humans?Red algae polysaccharides are used in ice cream.Chemical X is a hydrophilic germination inhibitor. What would be the advantage of having this chemical in the seed coat?The chemical would allow for germination when there was sufficient levels of moisture in the soil.Gene mapping is best accomplished in E. coli using the following strategy.Investigating the order of gene transfer by the F plasmidPlace the correct terms into the sentences about prokaryote classification.-Eukarya have similar DNA expression to archaea and is unlike that of bacteria. -Archaea and bacteria can both be classified into categories by their metabolic diversity. - Cyanobacteria differ from most prokaryotes because they carry out photosynthesis. -A technique called Gram staining is used to distinguish cell walls in bacteria.Select all the advantages that seeds have over spores.-Seeds have increased drought resistance. -Long term dormancy is possible -Nutrition is packaged with the embryo.Penicillin is classified as what type of drug?antibioticThe dried pericarp that forms the peanut shell provides evidence that peanuts arelegumesSelect the attributes that would be useful for distinguishing lycophytes from bryophytes.-Size of the gametophyte relative to the sporophyte -Presence of water conducting tracheids -Overall size of the plant -Usage of stomataThe fresh water surrounding a protist would be considered _____________ to the protist cell.hypotonicA plant that lacks petals and has well-developed anthers is most likelypollinated by wind.The breakdown of polar bodieswould cause the endosperm to fail to develop.Red algae possessphycocyanin.The protist ______ is an example of a diplomonad while _____ is an example of a parabasalid.Giardia, TrichomonasSelect all the true statements concerning prokaryotic organisms.-Biofilms may consist of multicellular assemblages of prokaryotic organisms. -Nearly all prokaryotic organisms are unicellular.Place the characteristic into the appropriate category of bacterial cell wall.gram-positive: acidic polysaccharides on surface, appears purple when stained, thick peptidoglycan layer, no porin proteins gram-negative: outer liposaccharide layer, appears pink when stained, thin peptidoglycan layer, has porin proteinsComplete the sentences with the correct terms.-Gymnosperms are vascular plants with naked seeds. -At the time of pollination, they produce exposed ovules that will become seeds on scales which are a type of modified leaf or stem. -Different forms of sporophyte tissue, commonly referred to as cones may enclose seeds at maturity. -There are four living groups of gymnosperms, but the largest and most common are the conifers.Place the name of different structures in the generalized diagram of a plant life cycle.Know the plant life cycleNectar is a sugar-laden liquid that is very energetically expensive to produce. Why do plants allocate resources to produce it instead of just producing more flowers?Nectar serves as an enticement for insects.Place the items into the appropriate category of a characteristic of cellular slime molds, plasmodial slime molds, or both types of slime molds.Cellular slime molds: separate amoeba, form a slug, communicate with cAMP Plasmodial slime molds: Multinucleated, no centrioles, sporangium both types of slime molds: spores, once considered fungiSelect all the true statements concerning conjugation in paramecia.-Genes are exchanged during conjugation. -Paramecia exchange micronuclei.Which statement best explains the role of proteins released by bacterial pathogens in humans?They help the bacteria avoid the host's immune system.Complete the sentences about Stramenopila characteristics with the correct terms.-Protists called brown algae are examples of Stramenopila. -The diatom is an example of a unicellular Stramenopila - Stramenopila refers to fine hairs found on the flagella -A pathogenic member of the Stramenopila is the water mold.Complete the sentences about eukaryotic characteristics with the correct terms.-Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into organelles, which is not characteristic of prokaryotes. -The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are located in the nucleus. -Internal membranes are typical of eukaryotes. -A eukaryotic cell's mitochondria evolved through endosymbiosis. -Eukaryotes and prokaryotes both use flagella for mobilityWhich statement best explains the evolutionary significance of the choanoflagellates?They are the closest relative to animals.Drag and drop the correct words to complete the sentences about protist cell surfaces.-A bare plasma membrane covers the surface of amoeba. -A diatom has a glassy shell covering its surface. -A covering called a cyst protects a cell from gastric acids. -A cell wall is an example of the extracellular matrix of algae.Why are Mycoplasma bacteria able to alter their shape?They lack a cell wall.Protists are organized into the following six groups: Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Amoebozoa, and Ophisthokonta. What are these groups called?supergroupsPlace the different characteristics on the phylogeny indicating where the traits evolved.know the plant cladogram-- chapter 29 slide 24Select the true statements concerning gametophytes and sporophytes.-Across all plant species, the size of the gametophyte is limited and cannot get very large. -Antheridia are located on the gametophyte.Natural penicillin blocks the assembly of peptidoglycans. It's highly effective against bacteria but not very effective against gram negatives. Why?Gram negative bacteria have lipopolysaccharides in addition to the peptidoglycans.Select all the true statements concerning eukaryotic cells.-Only eukaryotic cells contain chloroplasts. -If a cell has its chromosome in a separate bubble of membrane it would be eukaryotic.In 1982, researchers discovered that a major cause of human ulcers was due to infection with the following bacterium:Helicobacter pyloriEuglenozoans are genetically very distinct from land plants, yet some euglenids possess chloroplasts. How is this possible?The development of chloroplasts via endosymbiosis was not a unique event.Which feature best distinguishes protists from other eukaryotes?They cannot be categorized into a single kingdom.What domain do protists belong to?EukaryaWhich of the following cell arrangements is described CORRECTLY?Diplococcus - Pairs of spherical cellsDanny loves spicy tuna rolls, which contain tuna, rice, red algae, and wasabi sauce, but has recently developed an allergy to the polysaccharides found in rhodophytes. How should he modify his sushi order?Order the Nigiri sushi which consists of just tuna, rice, and sauce.Place the correct terms into the sentences about prokaryote characteristics.-Place the correct terms into the sentences about prokaryote characteristics. -The outer layer of gram-negative cell walls are usually rich in lipopolysaccharides. -Differences in bacterial movement can be attributed to differences in their flagella -The nucleoid is one feature that all bacteria share.An olympic rowing team consisting of 8 oarsmen would be analogous to movement by what?CiliaContractile vacuoles take up water when the cell's cytoplasm becomes too dilute. What is one underlying assumption behind this statement?There is some mechanism for the cell to measure the concentration of its cytoplasm.Select all of the environments where seeds would be an advantage over spores.-Deserts -areas with unpredictable rainfall -open habitats with sparse vegetationPlace the prokaryotic characteristic into the appropriate category.common to all prokaryotes: nucleoid, cell wall, circular chromosome, binary fission not common to all prokaryotes: S-layer, capsule, spores, flagellaWhy is rRNA used to construct phylogenies of the different domains?rRNA is highly conserved across wide ranging taxa.Chlorophytes are considered close relatives of land plants because-they both contain chlorophyll a. -they both contain chlorophyll b. -some chlorophytes have a haplodiplontic life cycle like plants.Place the structures into the appropriate category of a Property of the Apical Complex or Not a Property of the Apical of the apical complex: cytoskeleton, fribrils, secretory complex, for invading host not property of the apical complex: chloroplasts, nucleus, groovesComplete the sentences with the correct terms.-One clade of green algae called charophytes are the closest algal relatives of green plants based on molecular and morphological data. -Because they have a haplontic life cycle, this indicates that the haplodiplontic life cycle evolved after plants invaded land. -The Coleochaetales is a group of approximately 30 species whose cells have connections called plasmodesmata similar to land plants. -The Charales is a group of approximately 300 species whose cells undergo mitosis similar to land plants.Which statement best represents the use of bacteria in bioremediation?The cleanup of oil spills on ocean beachesPlant cells do not contain contractile vacuoles. What happens when they are watered with fresh water (hypotonic to their cells)?The cells swell.Place the characteristics into the appropriate category of a Property of Amoeba Movement and Not a Property of Amoeba of amoeba movement: pseudopod, amorphous, actin and myosin, flowing projections not a property of amoeba movement: cilia, undulating membraneChlorophytes are considered close relatives of land plants because (Check all that apply)-they both contain chlorophyll a. -they both contain chlorophyll b. -they both contain carotenoids -some chlorophytes have a haplodiplontic life cycle like plants.In terrestrial environments, nitrogen fixation only occurs in soils. Why is this the case?The enzymatic activity of the nitrogenase complex is inhibited by oxygen.How would a microbiologist test if a particular strain of bacteria could resist an antibiotic?Formulate a nutrient rich growth medium that contains the antibiotic and try and grow the bacteria in the medium.Select the following plant adaptations for the terrestrial environment that are correctly listed by their function.-Stomata allow for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere. -Tracheids transport water and minerals around the plant body.Bacteria that form spores are capable of what, that nonspore forming bacteria are NOT capable of?Survival under adverse environmental conditionsPlace the given characteristic in the correct gymnosperm category.coniferophyta: tough, needle-like leaves; form extensive forests in the northern hemisphere, produce small papery male cones and large woody female cones cycadophyta: predominantly tropical and subtropical distribution, leaves resemble palm tree leaves, produce large motile sperm gnetophyta: many species live in deserts but one is a tropical vine, vessels in wood, some species have broad flat leaves but scale-like leaves are produced by others ginkophyta: represented by only one remaining species, produce foul-smelling tissue around seeds, does not occur in the wildIndicate if the following statements are True or False regarding features of Pterophytes.-Ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns produce archegonia and antheridia.-- TRUE -The sperm of whisk ferns and horsetails have flagella but fern sperm lack flagella.-- FALSE -The nonphotosynthetic leaves of horsetails are called fronds.--FALSE -Ferns produce sporangia in structures called sori.- TRUE -Ferns and horsetails have roots, but whisk ferns have lost this trait since diverging from other Pterophyte lineages--TRUEPlace the characteristics into the appropriate category of Diplomonads only, Parabasalids only, or common to both.diplomonads only: may contain mitochondrial genes, have two nuclei parabasalids only: move with undulating membrane, some digest cellulose common to both: possess flagella, lack mitochondriaWhich of the following distinguishes lycophytes from pterophytes?Lycophytes have less vascularized leaves.Place the items into the appropriate category of phototroph or phagotroph.phototroph: autotrophic, alge, photosynthesis phagotroph: food vacuoles, ingest whole foodOne of the main distinctions between charophytes and land plants is the possession of a cuticle. Why do modern charophytes lack a cuticle?Cuticles aren't necessary when living in water.Place the terms into the sentences about bacterial diseases of humans.-The severe disease anthrax is caused by a Bacillus that affects animals and humans. -Ticks spread lyme disease which is caused by Borrelia. -The disease typhoid fever is caused by water or food contaminated with Salmonella. -One-fourth of the European population in the 14th century was killed by plague.Select the true statements concerning mitosis-plants, animals, and fungi use mitosis to replicate their nuclei -fungal cells undergo mitosis but the nuclear envelope remains intactWhich statement best describes the composition of diatom shells?They are like small boxes with lids composed of silicaAngiosperms are characterized by all of the following exceptdominant gametophyte generationSelect all the false statements concerning photoautotrophic prokaryotes.-They all use chlorophyll to absorb light energy. -They use pigments to absorb light energy but only cyanobacteria use chloroplasts. -Pigments are used to capture photon energy.Which statement best describes the swimming motion of dinoflagellates?They spin as they move.If Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, why is it necessary to treat it?Pelvic inflammatory disease is a potential complication and can render women sterile.Select the true statements concerning cell division.-Prokaryotic organisms use binary fission. -Archaeans are not capable of sexual reproduction. -Mitosis only occurs in eukaryotic cells.Select all the statements below that are true about brown algae.-Brown algae have haplodiplontic lifecycles. -Kelp has multicellular haploid and diploid stages in its lifecycle. -Brown algae provide food and shelter for many types of organisms.Which statement best explains one outcome of endosymbiosis?It is responsible for mitochondria.How do a fern sporophyte and a moss sporophyte differ?The fern sporophyte contains tracheids.Which statement best describes the swimming motion of dinoflagellates?They spin as they move.All of the following plant adaptations for life in a terrestrial environment can be found in bryophytes excepttracheidsIf Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, why is it necessary to treat it?Pelvic inflammatory disease is a potential complication and can render women sterile.Select all the statements below that are true about brown algae.-Brown algae have haplodiplontic lifecycles. -Kelp has multicellular haploid and diploid stages in its lifecycle. -Brown algae provide food and shelter for many types of organisms.Check all of the correct statements regarding Rhizobiaceae and leguminous plants.-Rhizobiaceae live in symbiosis with soybeans and peas. -Rhizobiaceae are nitrogen-fixing bacteria. -Rhizobiaceae can reduce the amount of fertilizer used agriculturally.Complete the sentences with the correct terms.-Angiosperm reproduction often involves animals that transport pollen from one flower to another. -Animal pollinators are often attracted to flowers by visual cues such as colorful petals. -Animals also visit flowers to access food rewards such as nectar produced by glands called nectaries at the base of the ovary.Select the true statements concerning cell division.-Prokaryotic organisms use binary fission. -Archaeans are not capable of sexual reproduction. -Mitosis only occurs in eukaryotic cells.