Upgrade to remove ads
APHuG Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes
Aligned to 2019 CED
Terms in this set (60)
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
Geographers divide culture into global and local
specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of global culture
Ex: Salat is the Islamic practice of praying to Mecca 5x daily; this is a cultural trait specific to that religion
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; allows one to adapt to a new culture while maintaining some aspects of their previous culture
Ex: Mexican, Chinese, or Indian food in the US is distinctly different than the actual cuisines in those particular countries. The cuisines have been adapted to American tastes while maintaining some styles or flavors of the point of origin.
process by which one culture merges into another culture and the original culture is no longer distinguishable; it can be desirable for immigrants to assimilate into a new culture, but of course, this depends on the ideals of both cultures
Ex: Native Americans were forced to assimilate into American culture in the 1800s; was looked at a way to "civilize" their culture; completely erased many aspects of Native American life
a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith
Ex: Rastafarian movement in Jamaica - blending of African-Hebrew and Christian religious practices with freed African slave culture
a condition in which ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life; recognition of equality of cultures and importance of diversity; could also be on an individual level (Muslims wearing blue jeans and hijabs or niqabs)
Ex: Toronto has been named the "most diverse city in the world" based on the percentage of its population born in a foreign country; this is reflected in the landscape of many shops, restaurants, places of worship, types of architecture, etc
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group; judging other cultures in terms of one's own standards
an unbiased way of viewing another culture; the goal of this is to promote understanding of cultural practices that are not typically part of one's own culture; leads to a view that no one culture is superior than another culture
Ex: Chinese foot-binding or Kayan women in Thailand - attempting to understand the underlying values and traditions that support these cultural practices
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time; types are relocation and expansion - including contagious, hierarchical, and stimulus
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population from its hearth (type of expansion diffusion)
Ex: new music (global culture) can spread throughout a population without regard for physical geography and does not require physical movement of people
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Ex: fashion trends originate in elite areas such as New York, Paris, Milan, etc and spread to suburban or rural areas where they are accessible to more people
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Ex: features of Apple's iPhone and iPad have been adopted by competitors; Maharaja Mac in India (no beef)
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process; does NOT require the movement of people; types include contagious, hierarchical, and stimulus
Ex: use of social media, such as facebook or twitter
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Ex: Ethnic religions, such as Hinduism or Judaism, are found near their hearths and are spread through relocation diffusion.
the divide in a culture that occurs when parts of the culture become dissimilar; one part of the cultural group may break off to form their own culture or restrict outside influences entirely
Ex: Part of the Amish's religious beliefs are that every individual must forsake modern luxuries and convenience. The Amish view these as sinful and, for that reason, they do not allow outsiders into their community for fear the individual will influence others. The Amish build their communities away from the roads and towns. They grow and make just about everything they need. Regular society delivers the latest and greatest gadgets, but Amish society is content with the simple things.
two or more cultures will become more and more like each other as their interactions increase; occurs frequently among developed nations due to globalization and increased access to transportation and technology
Ex: convergence is very reflective in language itself (but we will get to that); an example could be the move of anime from a local culture in Japan to a more global, accessible culture for everyone around the world
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape; the approach that our culture is visible where we live
Ex: Multiculturalism may be apparent in the types of restaurants a particular city offers; Chinatown exhibits the imprint of Chinese immigrants
includes language, heritage, traditions, customs; usually originates from the same geographic place
Ex: Roma people, originating from India, have diffused to Eastern Europe, Brazil, UK, and the US. Sometimes referred to as "gypsies," they have their own culture, language (similar to Sanskrit), religion (mostly Christian), traditions, etc. Their culture diffused via relocation as many Roma people have been persecuted throughout history and forced out of certain areas. They are considered nomadic.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Ex: Quechua people in Peru and Bolivia (predominantly); speak Quechua language, claim to be descendants of the Incas, economy is based in agriculture, land is owned collectively by the community, syncretic religion (Roman Catholic blended with traditional elements)
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
Ex: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid are the three types of races (traditionally)
Land that belongs to native populations; local cultures the have not been made global in scope (and usually prefer to keep it that way)
Ex: Wigwams are Native American structures made from wood, grass, brush, reeds, hides, or cloth. These materials were readily available in the Northeast US; the curved surface held up against bad weather; the young tree saplings were easy to bend to make the shape; similar structures called the "aqal" are made by nomadic Somali people by using whatever materials are available.
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
Ex: menstruation huts in Nepal, where woman are relegated to during their periods, signifies their position as "less than" within a society and has a physical and social impact on the landscape
a neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs; allows for both acculturation and assimilation; can also be called an enclave
Ex: DC and its metropolitan area has a large Ethiopian population: "Little Ethiopia"
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Ex: Easter Island's Maoi statues are evidence of a previous civilization on the landscape
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction among those places; time-space compression
Ex: internet and social media allow for culture to be spread rapidly through contagious diffusion
characteristics that unify a country and provide stability
Ex: a national language or religion will cause people to feel like they have more in common with their neighbors;
Characteristics that cause division within a country and are destabilizing
Ex: Nigeria does not have a national language and has many ethnicities, causing little homogeny among the people; modern-day India has restricted citizenship for its Buddhist and Muslim minorities
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Ex: Dutch colonies were established in many places, such as Aruba, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Curacao, and Saint Martin; as a result, these places still have imprints of Dutch civilization (Saint Martin is split into two between Dutch and French - Dutch side is spelled Sint Maarten)
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Ex: the Age of Imperialism witnessed the continent of Africa being divided among major world powers as they sought influence and resources
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Ex: developing countries are experience significant urbanization; the infrastructure cannot keep up with rapid population growth. People live close together, however this can promote shared cultures. Bangkok has experienced rapid urbanization in recent years due to more job opportunities in the city as opposed to rural areas; increase in Chinese population (as apparent in photo)
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Ex: Transition of soccer from local to global culture enhanced by relocation diffusion.
Locations on Earth's surface where specific cultures, languages, religions, etc first arose.
Ex: Islam's cultural hearth is in Mecca
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Ex: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ex: Judaism, Hinduism
the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics; aka popular culture
Ex: global music such as hip hop
traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated, rural areas; aka folk culture
Ex: local music such as "Bush Ballads" in Australia
system of communication through speech; a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
used in education, work, mass media, and government
most countries designate at least one institutional language as an official language
used by the government for laws, reports, and public objects
Ex: road signs, money, and stamps
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Ex: Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan are the two major language families
collection of languages within a family related through a common ancestral language but are not as extensive or as old as language families; archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
Ex: Germanic branch from the Indo-European family
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Ex: branch of Balto-Slavic splits into groups of East, West, and South Slavic
spoken in daily use by people of all ages and has a literary tradition
most widely used language family; predominant one in Europe, South Asia, and North and Latin America
contains 8 branches
A regional variation of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Ex: American and British English speakers have different vocabularies, spellings, and pronunciations (pg 164 in book). Even within the US there are variations in English (would be considered a subdialect)
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade, entertainment, business, and travel by people who have different native languages (translates to "Language of the Franks")
Ex: English is the world's lingua franca; regionally, Mandarin in China, Swahili in Africa
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. (simplified lingua franca)
does not have native speakers and is always spoken in addition to one's native language
Ex: Spanglish is Spanish and English
the process by which a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers or elements of different cultures are blended together to create a new culture
Ex: Creole language (French and English)
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they interact
Ex: due to globalization and use of the internet, English spreads more rapidly and can adopt characteristics of other native languages. Language makes communication between people easier, essentially allowing for convergence to continue.
the restriction of a culture from outside influences
Ex: some cultures may attempt to isolate in order to preserve their traditions or prevent the loss of endangered languages
the name given to a place on Earth
Ex: Quebec, Canada represents French heritage; the picture are Gaelic place names (Ireland)
The dominance of one political community over another political community. The weaker political community is influenced to serve the dominant power's interests.
Ex: Latin was the main language of the Holy Roman Empire but started to die out when HRE ended; English took over eventually with the Protestant Reformation and creation of national languages
Process of using military force to conquer and settle another territory whether it is occupied or unoccupied.
Ex: Scramble for Africa has left many countries underdeveloped but also with official languages of their colonizers
a force that divides people and countries
Ex: not having a national language may be a centrifugal force if people within one country cannot communicate with each other; Nigeria
a force that brings countries and people together
Ex: Language can act as a centripetal force; national or official languages encourages people to at least be able to understand/converse in the same language; China's official language is Mandarin even though they are hundreds of different languages and dialects found throughout the country
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Ex: Basque, Northern Spain
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Ex: Clallam, WA and Canada
word-usage boundaries that can be constructed for almost any word; seen widely throughout English-speaking countries due to distribution of dialects
Ex: NY Times quiz; y'all, youse, you guys
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APHuG Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Proc…
APHuG Unit 3: Language
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP HuG unit 3 Culture
Unit 3A APHG
AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocab
AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocab
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
APHUG Unit 2: Population and Migration
APHuG Unit 4: Political Patterns and Pro…
APHuG Unit 7: Industrial and Economic Pa…
APHuG Unit 1: Thinking Geographically