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adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture


a Russian Emperor


ideas that relate to or cause the overthrow of a government, or other great change


a political system in which the central government owns farms, factories, and offices

Four Themes of Russian history

1. Invasion and expansion
2. Harsh treatment of common people
3. Slow westernization
4. autocratic government

autocratic government

When one person has absolute power

a tsar in the 1540's

Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Cruel to his own people and conquered people

Peter The Great

(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg

The Russian civil war

Communist won

Cold War

The time of tension without actual war

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